The History of Gardening: A Timeline
From Ancient Times to the Twentieth Century

Noteworthy Gardens, Events, Persons, Publications, and Facts in the History of Gardening
References and Web Links Organized by Time Periods
Some Information about Agriculture, Farming, Culinary Arts, Botany, Horticulture, Technology, Arts and Crafts

Compiled by Michael P. Garofalo

March 12, 2011 

As gardening evolved, so too did the countless ways in which a yard could be adorned with plants, ponds, and other forms of nature.
There are infinite styles of
landscaping tailored to each individual, and it can be extremely exciting to find yours.

 Throughout the history of gardening there has always been a threat of pests.  
However this has always been countered by using many forms of
pest control to keep gardens safe and plentiful.


From Ancient Times to 1600

The Seventeenth Century:  1600 - 1699

The Eighteenth Century:  1701 - 1799

The Nineteenth Century: 1800 - 1899

The Twentieth Century:  1900 - 1999

Reference Sources and Selected Links

Objectives and Comments


Reminder: You can search the Gardening Timeline and the Spirit of Gardening website.

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The History of Gardening: A Timeline
From Ancient Times to 1600



35,000 BCE        (BCE = Before the Common Era, or Before the Roman Era)
                              B.C. = Before Caesar (Julius Caesar), or Before Christ (Jesus of Nazareth)  
                                          Before the Communications Era of Handwritten Books and Scholarly Libraries 
                                          (450 BCE - 450 CE)
                                          BCE does not mean "Before the Christian Era."
                             Three persons, all offended Christians, have written to me to insist that I use BC and AD.  I'm not the only amateur scholar using BC and BCE.
                             There are numerous Internet resources that discuss this topic of dating schemes. 
                             Actually, I would prefer BP = Before Printing and AP = After Printing (Gutenberg, 1453-) to date the "Common Era."  Many experts consider
                             the invention of printing as the most important invention of the last 1,000 years.  There is no doubt that the widespread dissemination of knowledge
                             via printed books greatly changed the consciousness of modern man.  We left the "Dark Ages" and moved into the Renaissance.

Evidence from archeological sites (tools, corprolites) indicates that Homo Sapiens at the end of the Paleolithic period had knowledge of many plants dervied from food gathering techniques.  Different kids of fruits, nuts, and roots were only gathered, not cultivated. 


15,000 BCE     

"The history of the origin of human civilizations and agriculture is, of course, much older than the documentation in the form of pyramids, inscriptions and bas-reliefs or tombs can tell us.  A close acquaintance with cultivated plants and with the multitude of types and their differentiation into geographical groups as well as their frequently sharp physiological isolation from each other compel us to refer the very origin of cultivated plants to such remote epochs, where periods of 5-10,000 years such as concern archeologists represent but a brief moment."
-   N.I. Vavilow, Origin and Geography of Cultivated Plants, 1987.
    Dogs were used in hunting in Iraq.


8500 BCE

In Mesopotamia,   humans raised domesticated goats, sheep, and cereal grains.  Neolithic cultures involved farming.
"Scientists have carried out carbon-14 testing of animal and plant remains and have dated finds of domesticated
sheep at 9000 BC in northern Iraq; cattle in the 6th millennium BC in northeastern Iran; goats at 8000 BC in
central Iran; pigs at 8000 BC in Thailand and 7000 BC in Thessaly; onagers, or asses, at 7000 BC in
Jarmo, Iraq; and horses at 4350 BC in Ukraine."   Bio-Tech's History of Agriculture.


8000 BCE  

"Certain cereals and pulses (legumes) were domesticated in very ancient times.  In about 8000 BC in the Fertile Crescent of the Near and Middle East (present-day Syria, Iran, Iraq, Turkey, Jordan, Israel), wheats, barley, lentil, pea, bitter vetch, chick-pea, and possibly faba bean, were brought into cultivation by the Neolithic people.  These crops spread from the point of origin.  Archaeological evidence indicates that the wheats, and some of the legumes, had reached Greece by 6000 BC and evidence of their presence within that millennium has been found in the Danube Basin, the Nile valley, and the Indian subcontinent (Pakistan).  Dispersal continued throughout Europe, the crops reaching Britain and Scandinavia in 4,000-2,000 BC."    - The New Oxford Book of Food Plants  [Vaughan 1997]

"The first evidence for plant domestication is approximately10,000 years old, but the first society in which people were primarily dependent on domesticated crops and livestock does not appear until about 6,000 years ago."

    Khabur Basin farming in Syria. 

"The only factor that can account for the irreversible and nearly uniform emergence of agriculture throughout the world is the grown of populations beyond the size that hunting and gathering would support."  Mark Cohen's Thesis.   [Heiser 1990]


7000 BCE

    People in Central America cultivate corn and other crops.
    People at Tepe Ali Khosh in Iran cultivated 'Emmer' and 'Einkorn' wheat.   [Baker 1978]
    Gardening myths
    Chatal Huyuk is the largest Neolithic site in the Near East.
    Rice cultivation in Yangtze Valley of China.
    Apples cultivated in southwestern Asia.


6000 BCE

Evidence of cultivation of wheat (but not breadwheat), barley (naked, not hulled), and lentils were found in
the Neolithic Greek cultures of Thessaly, Crete, and the Cyclades.

    Evidence of rice cultivation at Ho-mu-tu in South China; and, at Ban-po-ts'un in North China.
    Oranges cultivated in India and Tigris River Valley.

    Cultivation of maize in Peru.



Green Way Blog by Michael P. Garofalo



5000 BCE

    Wild pod corn is cultivated in the Tehuacan valley in Mexico.  [Baker 1978]
    Millet grown along the Yellow River (Huang Ho) in China.
    The Native people of North America inhabit river flood plains and cultivate crops. 
    Irrigation begins in the Middle East.  [Heiser 1990]
    Cotton grown in Mexico. 
    Domestication of some wild plants by people living in the Mississippi River drainage basin
    Wine making in Iran.


4800 BCE

Archeological evidence from Tehuacan in south central Mexico shows that maize, squash, chili peppers, avocados, and amaranth were cultivated.   [Heiser 1990]

    Domestication of citrus species in various parts of the world. Sweet Oranges by Stephen Hui.


4500 BCE

    Evidence of managed woodlands in Britain. 


4000 BCE

"As in the case of the cereals, the legumes are amongst the oldest crops cultivated by the human race.  Between the cereals and legumes there is a parallel domestication:  wheat, barley, pea, lentil, broad bean, and chick pea in West Asia and Europe; maize and common bean in Central America; ground nut in South America; pearl millet, sorghum, cowpea, and bambara groundnut in Africa; rice and soya bean in China."  -   - The New Oxford Book of Food Plants, xviii, 1997, by J. G . Vaughan and C. A. Geissler. 

    Farming in Mesopotamia by Sumerians.  Hittites.

    Indus Valley agriculture is very extensive:   wheat, peas, sesame seed, barley, dates, mangoes.  




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3900 BCE

    Rice grown in Southeast Asia, Korat area of Thailand.
    Ancient World Web IndexAncient Scripts - Web Resources


3700 BCE

    Uruk period of Sumerian agriculture.



    Egyptian agriculture using extensive irrigation techniques.
    Egyptian garden art
    Cotton growing and cotton textiles quite advanced in India, and reamained so until the 13th century.
    Ancient Egyptian Horticulture and Agriculture


3000 BCE 

    Written manuals for the use of herbs in medicine existed in Mesopotamia (now Iraq) and in China.  Herbal remedies were widely used by the ancient people.
    Potatoes are cultivated in the Andes mountains of Peru. 
        Lost Crops of the Incas

"Of the two thousand or so species in the bulging genus Solanum, about 170 are tuber-bearers.  Of the tuber-bearers, only eight
are routinely cultivated and eaten by people, and most of these have stuck pretty close to home in the Andes of Peru.   Only
one has reached international stardom: S. tuberosum, commonly known as the potato.  The potato probably originated in Peru,
where indications are that it was domesticated over six thousand years ago by high-altitude-dwelling ancestors of the Incas."
Blue Corn and Square Tomatoes: Unusual Facts about Common Garden Vegetables.  By Rebecca Rupp.  Garden Way
Publishing 1987.  

    Egyptians in the Nile Valley manufacturing and wearing cotton clothes.
    Egyptian tomb paintings show walled gardens with fish ponds and fruit trees.
    Carved water basin from Tello in Mesopotamia.  [Hirst 1999]
    Olives cultivated in Crete and Syria.
    Farming in India.


2700 BCE

    Rhubarb cultivated in China for medicinal purposes. 
    Egyptians used over 500 plants, wild and cultivated, for medicinal purposes.  Egyptian wine making.
    Chinese Emperor Shen Nung's plant classification lists.
    Hemp cultivation in China.


2500  BCE

    Rice was an important food in Mohenjo-Daro near the Arabian Sea, and in the Yangtze Basin in China. 
    Cotton was cultivated and its fibers spun and woven in Peru and the Indus Valley of Asia.  [Baker 1978]
    Figs, grape vines, pomegranates, and dates in cultivation in Egypt and Asia.  The first garden art was probably decorated grape arbors [Gothein 1928].   Olive trees cultivated in Crete. 
    Farming in England.


2000 BCE

    Native Americans are growing many varieties of corn, beans, squash, sunflowers, as well as using many wild plants as foods.
    Egyptians making paper from the papyrus plant.  Watermelon cultivated in Africa, tea and bananas in India, apples in the          Indus Valley. 



I Welcome Your Comments and Suggestions



1750 BCE

    The Hammurabic Code.  Includes sections on maintaining irrigation canals and ditches, and property laws regarding gardens..  Sumerian "Farmer's Almanac."


1495 BCE

    Queen Hatshepsut of Egypt imports trees from conquered territory in North Africa.
    Farming in Ancient Egypt
    One of the oldest surviving garden plans is for the garden of a court official in Thebes.


1300 BCE

    Ramses II has apples cultivated along the Nile.


1167 BCE

    Ramses III, Egyptian King, (1198-1167) benefactor to many grand temple gardens and public buildings. 


1275 BCE

    The Torah establishes rules for kosher food. 

1000 BCE

    Irrigation begins in in Mexico.  [Heiser 1990]
    Sacred Places:  Trees and the Sacred.
    Tiglath Pileser I, King in Mesopotamia, enthusiastic gardener




Reviews and Awards



800 BCE

    Peanuts cultivated in Peru.
    Farming in Africa.


700 BCE

    Works and Days by Hesiod.



Flowers - Quotes for Gardeners



540 BCE

    Hanging Gardens of Babylon.  Built by slaves and peasants directed by King Nebuchadnezzar II.
    Sugar cane grown along the Indus River.


485 BCE

    King Darius the Great (521-485) and his paradise garden in Persia.  


440 BCE

    Herodotus of Halicarnassos (484-426) writes on history, customs and life in the ancient world. 


377 BCE

    Hippocrates (circa 460-377)  Greek physician.  Wrote 87 treatises.  Many herbal remedies.


350 BCE

    Gardens at the Academy, Athens, Greece
    Natural history references in the Jewish sacred scriptures - Pentateuch.
    Trees: Living Links to the Classical Past.  By John M. McMahon.


322 BCE

    Aristotle (384-322)  Greek philosopher and scientist.   Wrote 26 treatises on natural science.
        On Plants, Parts of Animals, On the Soul, Generation, Physics, On the Heavens.
        Theophrastus inherited Aristotle's botanic garden in Athens, and many of Aristotle's treatises.

    Books on plants and gardening written by Theophrastus.    One of his books:  De Causis Plantarum.
    Theophrastus is considered by some to be the "Father of Botany."

    Exchange of information, seeds and plants between Greece and Persia.


301 BCE

    History of Plants and Theoretical Botany by Theophrastus.  
   Trees: Living Links to the Classical Past.   By John M. McMahon.
    Summary of Greek biology.
    Rice growing in Japan.


271 BCE

    Epicurus (341-271) used a large garden for gatherings and walks.   The Philosophy Garden
    Upon the Gardens of Epicurus; or, Of Gardening.    By Sir William Temple, 1685. 


207 BCE

    The opulent and extensive gardens and palace of the first Chinese emperor Ch'in Shih Huang-ti were burned by peasants and Confucian rebels. 


200 BCE

    King Dutthagamini in India has a large artwork of the Sacred Fig Tree (Buddha's tree) made of precious materials and placed in the Great Gold Dust Dagoba park and gardens.   
    Gardens at Pompeii, Italy   [Helphand 1977]
    Greco-Roman eating, drinking, farming, farming and starving exhibit.
    Almonds cultivated in Greece.
    Cultivation and trade of coconuts between East Africa and India.
    The Hopewellian farming culture in Ohio, North America, is thriving.  


149 BCE

   Cato (234-149) wrote on the simple country life.
    De Agriculture, by Cato the Elder, emphasizes planting olives and grapes. 


100 BCE   

    Grain harvesting at Karanis, Egypt
    The Shang Lin (Great Grove) immense imperial garden of the Chinese emperor Wu-ti. 
    Shanlin Yuan ("yuan" is chinese for "garden") occupied over 1000 km˛ and contained more than 300 palaces.


The Four Seasons - Quotes for Gardeners



87 BCE

    The royal park and gardens of the Chinese Emperor Wu Ti (140-87) in West China, Chang-an.
    The Roman's staple grain was spelt.


40 BCE

    De Re Rustica.   Varro (116-27).  Roman agriculture.   Varro was a prolific author, and he noted that there were over 40 known treatises available on the subject in 40 BCE. 


29 BCE

    Georgics.   Virgil.   Roman rural life. 
    Celtic Druids and Sacred Trees


50    A.D. =  "Anno Domini" in Latin or "the year of the Lord" in English.  Or ...
        CE    =  Common Era.  The word "common" simply means that this is the most 
                     frequently used calendar system: the Gregorian Calendar.
                     It does
not mean "Christian Era." 

    De Materia Medica.    Dioscorides the Greek.  Herbal medicine. 


60  CE

    De Re Rustica, On Agriculture and Trees ...   Columella. 


79  CE

    Natural History (Naturalis Historica).    Pliny the Elder  (23-79).   Roman naturalist.


90  CE

    De Aquae Ductibus.   Frontinus.   Waterworks in the garden and farm.


105  CE

    Tuscan villa at the base of the Apennies
    Tai-yu's garden in China.  Fiction by John P. Rastello.



Seasonal and Gardening
Poems, Quotes, Sayings, Ideas, Links, Chores

Compiled by Michael P. Garofalo





January April July October
February May August November
March June September December



113  CE

    Pliny the Younger (61-113) Letters about villa gardens. 


138  CE

    Emperor Hadrian's Villa near Tivoli. 
    Karanis, a farming town in Roman Egypt.


250  CE

    The administrators of the Roman Empire (circa 100 BCE - 500 AD) actively exchanged information on agriculture, horticulture, animal husbandry, hydraulics, and botany.   Seeds and plants were widely shared.

    Chinese making paper from rags, bark, hemp and other fibrous materials.   [Baker 1978] 



I Welcome Your Comments and Suggestions



400  CE

    The Palace Garden at Sigiriya in Sri Lanka


460  CE

    Sidonius writes about his Roman villa in Lac d'Aydat in Auvergne, France.
    Flora of Southeast Asia (Nan-fang ts'ao-mu chuang) by Hui-lin Li.
    Chinese "scholar gardens."
    Eggplants cultivated in China and India.


550  CE

    Domestication of coffee takes place in Arabia until 800.  [Baker 1978]    Coffee drinking popular in Arabia.
    In the year 2000, coffee imports and exports are second only to oil on the world trade market.


560  CE

    Ono No Imoko, Japanese Buddhist priest and scholar, living by a lake "ikebono", developed an elemental Ikebana flower arrangement style.
    Mayan agriculture research
    Various styles of fountains and water gardens reflect Persian, Indian and Roman influences.


618  CE

    The Chinese emperor Yang-ti constructs the vast imperial garden called The Western Garden. 
    Suzho, China - "City of Gardens";  Pi Jiang Garden.
    Arabs in Persia are impressed by gardening concept of chahar bagh.   


670  CE

    St. Fiacre - Patron Saint of Gardeners ( 620-670)
    Sacred Trees of the Celts


735  CE

    Venerable Bede, Saint Bede (673-735)  English historian, scholar, and theologian. 
     De Natura Rerum - Medieval science.   Many notes on monastic kitchen gardens.


750  CE

    Use of the Green Man in art and lore becomes widespread in Christian Europe.  Internet resources include:  The Search for the Green Man  and   Who is the Green Man.  Books on the subject include:  Green Man: The Archetype of Our Oneness with the Earth by William Anderson, 1990. The Green Man by Kathleen Basford, 1978.  The Jack in The Green by Roy Judge, 1979.

    Arabs capture Chinese papermakers at Samarkand and adopt the process for papermaking. 


760  CE

    Hindu and Arabic mathematicians and thinkers are using a decimal arithmetic.    Farmers and gardeners frequently keep detailed logs of their work, and decimal arithmetic is widely used to track important details, e.g., costs of plants and materials, percentage of plants in a batch of cuttings that took, quarts of berries picked, current supermarket price of fresh green beans, etc..


800  CE

    The city of Baghdad is a center of Arab Islamic culture.   Extensive scientific work on agriculture and botany for many centuries before and after.
    Soft soap making widespread.
    Chinese garden concepts and the Foolishman's Garden.


812  CE

    Charlemagne (742-812)  King of Franks, Emperor of Western Europe, patron of arts, sciences, and literature.  Experimented with plants in a private garden and coordinated planting efforts on estates. 
    Plants in Medieval gardens.


850  CE

    Hortulus- Liber de Cultura Hortorum (Book Concerning the Cultivation of Gardens).    Walafridus Strabo (809-849). 
    Viking Age Foodstuffs


900  CE

    Cordova, Moorish Spain, center for botanical studies and libraries and learning.  Information.
    Byzantine and Medieval Studies Links
    Tofu commonly eaten in China.
    Japanese gardening aesthetics and history.


1044  CE

    The Great Hunger of 1044:  The Progress of a Medieval Famine
    Sacred Trees in Celtic Traditions


1050  CE

    Tale of Genji.   Japanese court novel describes aristocratic gardens.
    A Chinese scholar's garden.
    Medieval technology timeline.


1080  CE

    The Book of Agriculture.    Ibn Bassal, Arab botanist, plant collector, and horticulturist.      
     Farming in Dartmoor, England.


1085  CE

    The great Arab libraries in Toledo, Spain, provide Europeans access to sophisticated Islamic and Greek writings in science and agriculture.  The success of Arab agriculture in Andalusia, Spain, is renowned.

    Horizontal looms are used in Europe.



Cloud Hands: Tai Chi Chuan and Qigong



1094  CE

    Sakuteiki.   Tachibana no Toshitsuna.   Japan treatise on garden design. 

1120  CE

    The Chinese emperor Hui-tsung has the famous Ken Yeh Garden "The Impregnable Peak" constructed. 
    Manor system in Europe.  A manor was roughly 900 to 2,000 acres of arable land.
    Hard soaps in wide use.


1130  CE

    Percussion drilling of wells in France.. 


1140  CE


1150  CE

     The use of windmills for grinding grains.     

1160  CE


1180  CE

    Al-Awwam writing on Andalusian agriculture and garden design.    Moorish Spain. 
    Ibn Baitar writing on medicinal plants: Collection of Simple Drugs and Food


1191  CE

    Tea from China becomes popular in Japan. 

1227  CE

    Vatican botanical garden founded.  A medicinal or physic garden which still exists today, although in a different location.
    St. Frances of Assisi (1182-1126).  A holy man now known for his love of animals and nature, and his kindness.


1250  CE

     The Japanese Buddhist priest Eisai (1141-1215) utilized a tea ritual as praticed in Chinese Buddhist temples.
    Medieval European views about the spontaneous generation of organisms.
     The wheelbarrow makes its way into European books.


1260  CE

    De vegetabilibus.     Saint Albert the Great.  (1193-1280).


1280  CE

    Marco Polo visits the palace garden of the Mogol ruler, Kubilai, in China.  Then he reports on visiting the famous Hsi Hu (West Lake) imperial gardens in the largest and probably most advanced city in the world at the time - (Kinsay) Hangchou, China.    He brought some new pasta making techniques back to Europe.   


1305  CE

    Opus Ruralium Commodorum, by Petrus de Crescentiis of Bologna. 
    Medieval agriculture.


1339  CE

    Koki-dera (Moss Garden) of Muso Soseki, Japan.
    Herding dogs used on European manors.




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1350  CE

    The great formal gardens of the Moorish Arabs (e.g., Generallife in the Alhambra, Granada, Spain) set standards.
    Decameron.   Giovanni Boccaccio.  County gardens provide a retreat for those fleeing the plague.


1357  CE

    The Black Death in Europe.  A plague that reduced the population of Europe by 60%. 
    Alcazar gardens in Seville, Spain.


1390  CE

    Forme of Cury: A Roll of Ancient English Cookery.   


1400  CE

    The Feate of Gardening.


1450  CE

    Illustrations for Designing Mountain, Water, and Hillside Field Landscapes.    Zoen, Japanese landscape architect.
    Emperor Yoshimasa of Japan made flower arrangement part of universal education.
    Johann Gutenberg began printing with moveable type in Mainz, Germany.   By 1500, the world of ideas would never be the same in Western Europe because of this single invention.  
    Medieval gingerbread candy.


1460  CE

    The Gart der Gesundheit.   Printed in Mainz.    Herbal medicine. 
    Hortus Sanitatis.   Printed in Mainz.    Herbal medicine. 
    Fifteenth Century Life in Europe - Roses


1470  CE

    De re aedificatoria.    Leone Battista Alberti (1404-1472).   Renaissance scholar. 
    The Topkapi Palace in Turkish Constantinople has renowned fruit trees, gardens and landscaping. 
    Ottoman Turks introduce coffee to Constantinople. "The world's first coffee shop, Kiva Han, opens in 1475."
    Pietro Creszenzi of Bologna compiled ancient works into The Opus Ruralium Commodorum.
    Encyclopedia by Bartholomeus Anglicus.   Apples and apple cider.  


1480  CE

Giovanni Medici's villa garden.
Frankfurt-am-Main, Germany, may be the birthplace of the hot dog.


1490  CE

    Temple garden of Royanjii, Japan. 


1492  CE

    Voyage of Christopher Columbus from Spain to the edge of the Americas. 
    The beginning of plant exchanges between Europe and the Americas. 
    Christopher Columbus: A Culinary History


1497  CE

    Portuguese control the spice trade in the Indian Ocean. 




Reminder: You can search the Spirit of Gardening website.

Search Tips and Advanced Atomz Searching Techniques for Searching the Spirit of Gardening Website



1510  CE

    Sunflowers from South America introduced in Spain.


1513  CE

    Daisen-in garden in Koyoto, Japan.  Designed by So-ami.  This is a famous dry garden (Kare-Sanuui). 
    Hampton Court Gardens, England.    By Linda Johnson. 


1516  CE

    First use of the term 'herbal' per the Oxford English Dictionary.


1528  CE

    Hernando Cortes introduces vanilla beans, fava beans, cocoa, sweet potatoes, and haricot to Spain. 


1529  CE

    Historia General de Nueva Espana.    Bernardino de Sahugun.   Aztec gardening arts reported.


1530  CE

    Gardens of Babur (1483-1530), Mughal Emperor, in Persia and India. 
    Persian botanical art, particularly miniatures, is renowned. 
    Plants exchanged between Europe and the Americas. 


1533  CE

    Oldest university chair of botany in Europe, founded in Padua by the Venetian Republic.
    Spainards started caco tree plantations in Venezuela and Trinidad.



Jokes, Riddles and Humor for Gardeners



1535  CE

    Nature Mysticism of Heinrich Cornelius Agrippa of Nettesheim (1487-1535) and Theophrastus Paracelsus (1493-1541).


1543  CE

    Europe's first bontanic garden, established in Pisa by botany professor Luca Ghini.
    Potatoes and tomatoes from South America, via Spain, cultivated in Europe. 


1545  CE

    The Ikenobo School "formulated the principles of rikka arrangements by naming the seven principal branches used in that type of arrangement."



Work - Quotes for Gardeners



1550  CE

    Villa Medici in Rome.
    Europe's first museum of natural history in Bologna.
    The first printed almanacs in English become available. 


1555  CE

    Georgius Agricola  [George Buaer}  (1494-1555)    German geologist, metallurgist, and paleontologist.
    Carolus Clusius, Dutch botanist, cultivating tulip bulbs imported from Constantinople.
    Fuch's Botanical.   Leonhard Fuchs (1501-1566).  


1557  CE

    Five Hundred Points of Good Husbandry:  A Book of Huswifery.    Thomas Tusser.    
    Gonzalo Fernández de Oviedo y Valdes (1478-1557)  Described flora of New World.
    Bontanical book treasures in the Vatican Library.

1561  CE

    De Historia Plantarum.  Valerius Cordus. 


1568  CE

    William Turner  (1510-1568), "Father of English Botany."


1569  CE

    Nicolas Monardes writing about the botany of the New World based on Spanish accounts. 
    The Profitable Arte of Gardening.    Thomas Hill.   Herbal medicine. 
    Camembert cheese production in France.


1570  CE

    Villa d'Este, Little Rome, constructed at Tivoli, Italy.    Elaborate water garden. 
    Spanish explorers bring potatoes back to Europe. 
    Francisco Hernandez, private physician to Philip II of Spain, explores the New World and reports on over 1,000 plants considered of medicinal value.  This research was not published until 1651 as Rerum Medicarum Novae Hispaniae.

    The Enchanted Gardens of the Renaissance   Facts about three Renaissance gardens near Rome:   Villa D'Este - Tivoli, Villa Lante - Bagnaia, Bomarzo's Sacred Groves. 



Quotes for Gardeners

Quotes, Sayings, Proverbs, Poetry, Maxims, Quips, Cliches, Adages, Wisdom
A Collection Growing to Over 2,000 Quotes,  Arranged by 105 Topics
Many of the Documents Include Recommended Readings and Internet Links.
Compiled by Michael P. Garofalo



1576  CE

Conrad Heresbach   (1496-1576)   The Whole Art and Trade of Husbandry, Contained in Foure Bookes.


1577  CE

    Gardener's Labyrinth.    Thomas Hill (Didymus Mountain).
    Sultan Murad III had the area of Anatolian Maras send him 100,000 hyacinth bulbs.


1580  CE

    Villa Lante, Renaissance garden, Bagnaia, Italy.


1583  CE

    Great Pharmacopoeia.    Li Shih-Chen (Li Shi-Zhen).  Chinese botanist.  Botanical medicine. 
    De Plantis Libri.   Andrea Cesalpino.  A very important book in the history of botany.  Plants grouped by physical characteristics (morphology) rather than by medicinal properties.   


1586  CE

    Sir Frances Drake brings sassafras and potatoes from America to England.  [Rupp 1990]
    Gardens in the Netherlands.
    Vicino Orsini's garden at Bomarzo, Italy.
    The Good Huswifes Handmaid for Cookerie in her Kitchen.    Make a apple orange tart.


1591  CE

    Sen no Soyeki or Rikyu (1522-1591).   Japanese tea master, poet, and garden lover.
    Tea.  A great selection of teas and teaware; and some good information about tea.



I Welcome Your Comments and Suggestions



1593  CE

    First French botanic garden in Montpellier.   Influenced by Moorish Spain. 


1595  CE

    Frances Bacon prepares lists of common garden plants. 

    Floriculture and plant collecting are very popular in England and the Low Countries.


1597  CE

    The Herbal of Generall Historie of Plants.   John Gerard.   1360 pages.
    The Dutch take over from the Portuguese in contolling the spice trade in the Indian Ocean.

1600  CE

    European forests are becoming depleted, and shortages of wood effect various industries.  In later years, coal, petroleum,  hydroelectric and finally nuclear power sources are increasingly utilized.  [Ponting 1991]

    Mannerism in gardening.





The History of Gardening Timeline

Noteworthy Gardens, Events, Persons, Publications and Facts in the History of Gardening
Includes Related Information about Agriculture, Culinary Arts, Farming, Botany, Horticulture, Technology, Arts and Crafts

Compiled by Michael P. Garofalo


From Ancient Times to 1600

The Seventeenth Century:  1600 - 1699

The Eighteenth Century:  1701 - 1799

The Nineteenth Century: 1800 - 1899

The Twentieth Century:  1900 - 1999

Reference Sources and Selected Links




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More Quotes




Spirituality and Concerns of the Soul


Weeds and Weeding

Simplicity and the Simple Life

Tai Chi Chuan and Chi Kung

Pulling Onions
Quips, Maxims and Observations by Michael P. Garofalo

The Essence of Gardening

Working in the Garden

Garden Digest Links


Haiku and Zen Poetry  -  Links and References

Cliches for Gardeners and Farmers

Short Poems by Mike Garofalo

Seeing and Vision

Beauty in the Garden

Seasons and Time

Comments about this Web Site

Jokes, Riddles and Humor


Quotes for Gardeners

Quotes, Sayings, Proverbs, Poetry, Maxims, Quips, Cliches, Adages, Wisdom
A Collection Growing to Over 2,000 Quotes, Arranged by 105 Topics
Many of the Documents Include Recommended Readings and Internet Links.
Compiled by Michael P. Garofalo



The Spirit of Gardening





Copyrighted 1999 - 2003 by Michael P. Garofalo.  All rights reserved.

I Welcome Your Comments, Ideas, Contributions, and Suggestions
E-mail Mike Garofalo in Red Bluff, California

A Short Biography of Mchael P. Garofalo

Gardening History Timeline: From Ancient Times to 1600.  
67K, Version 3.3.    January 1, 2003
This document was first distributed on the Internet on January 1, 1999.


The Spirit of Gardening

Quotes for Gardeners

Cloud Hands: Tai Chi Chuan and Qigong


Index to the History of Gardening Timeline