Reference Sources and Links

for the
History of Gardening Timeline

Noteworthy Gardens, Events, Persons, Publications and Facts in the History of Gardening
Includes Related Information about Agriculture, Culinary Arts, Culture, Botany, Horticulture and Technology

Compiled by Michael P. Garofalo

September 1, 2005







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Reference Sources


Altman 1994    Sacred Trees.   By Nathaniel Altman.  San Francisco, Sierra Club Books, c 1994. 244 pages, index, bibliography, list of organizations, illustrations, drawings, black and white photos.   

Anderson 1990   Green Man: The Archetype of Our Oneness with the Earth.   By William Anderson.  Photography by Clive Hicks.  London, Harper Collins, c 1990. 176 pages, bibliography, notes.    "Beautifully illustrated in colour as well as black and white, and connected with a BBC Omnibus documentary, Green Man is the record of a quest for the archetype through folklore, religion, art and architecture, from prehistory to the present."

Bailey 1941   The Standard Cyclopedia of Horticulture.    By Liberty Hyde Bailey.   New York, Macmillan, 1941.  First published in 1900.  3 Volumes.  3639 pages. 

Bailey 1976    Hortus Third: A Concise Dictionary of Plants Cultivated in the United States and Canada.   Initally compiled by Liberty Hyde Bailey; revised and expanded by the staff of the Liberty Hyde Bailey Hortorium.  New York, Macmillan, 1976.  1290 pages. 

Baker 1978    Plants and Civilization.    Herbert B. Baker.  Belmont, California, Wadsworth Publishing Co., 1978, 1965.  Third Edition.  197 pages.  ISBN: 0534005758. 





Reviews and Awards




Berrall  1966    The Garden: An Illustrated History.    By Julia S. Berrall.   New York, Viking Press, 1966.   388 pages.  Over 200 plates and illustrations. 

Beston 1935   Herbs and the Earth.   By Henry Beston.   Garden City, New York, Doubleday, 1935.  144 pages.

Bibliography of Agriculture and Pastoralism - Archaeology

Blunt 1950   The Art of Botanical Illustration.    By Wilfrid Blunt.  London, Collins, 1950.  304 pages. 

Boorstin 1983   The Discoverers.   By Daniel Boorstin.  New York, Random House, 1983.  745 pages.   ISBN: 0394402294.

Brainard 1999     Agriculture and Food - History - 18th Century Net Links.   By Rick Brainard.

Brown 2000   The Modern Garden.   By Jane Brown.  New York, Princeton Architectural Press, 2000. 
Index, bibliography, notes, 223 pages.  ISBN: 1568982380. 

California Garden and Landscape History Society.
  Founded in 1995.  100 Bear Oaks Drive, Martinez, CA 94553-9754.  Annual dues $20 - $50.   The quarterly newsletter, EDEN, has informative articles, biographical sketches,
a list of coming events, organizational news, and web reviews.  Contact: gflomnbf@earthlink.netWebsite.

Camp 1957.   The World in Your Garden.
   By W.H. Camp, V. R. Boswell, and  J. R. Magness.   Washington, DC, National Geographic Society, 1957.  231 pages.

Chambers 1993
   The Planters of the English Landscape Garden: Botany, Trees, and the Georgics.  Studies in British Art.  Yale University Press, 1993.  214 pages.  ISBN: 0300054645.   

Chapman 1999    History of American Agriculture.    By John Chapman.

Clarkson 1940    Green Enchantment: The Magic Spell of Gardens.   By Rosetta E. Clarkson.   1940.

Clayton 2000    The Once and Future Gardener. 
Garden Writing from the Golden Age of Magazines, 1900-1940.  Edited and with an introduction by Virginia Tuttle Clayton.   Jaffrey, New Hampshire, David R. Godine, 2000.  Bibliography, index, 312 pages.   ISBN: 1567921027. 

Coats 1970    Flowers: The Story of Flowers, Plants and Gardens Through the Ages
.   By Peter Coats.  1970.

Cohen 1995    How Many People Can the Earth Support?   By J. E. Cohen.  New York, Norton, 1995.   532 pages.  ISBN 0-393-03862-9.

Crouch 1988   The Allotment: Its Landscape and Culture.   By David Crouch and Colin Ward.   1988.   Garden contributions from people coming from India, Pakistan, and the West Indies. 

DeDuve 1995    Vital Dust: The Origin and Evolution of Life on Earth.  By C. de Duve.  New York, Harper Collins, 1995.  362 pages.  ISBN:  0465090451.

DeMuth 1999    Herbs and Herb Gardening:   An Annotated Bibliography and Resource Guide.   By Suzanne DeMuth. 

Desmond 1987    A Celebration of Flowers:  Two hundred years of Curtis's Botanical Magazine, Royal Botanic Gardens.  By R. Desmond.  London, Collingridge, 1987.  208 pages.  ISBN: 0600550753.

Directory of Botanists, Plantsmen, Landscapers, Gardeners and Writers of Note.   Sisley Garden Tours, Directory. Excellent on-line resource!!

Documentary Chronology of Selected Events in the Development of the American Conservation Movement, 1847-1920.

Earthly Pursuits - Old Books Online  

Ewan 1969   A Short History of Botany in the United States.    By Jed Ewan.  New York, Hafner Publishing Company, 1969.   174 pages.

Fairbrother 1956    Men and Gardens.   Nan Fairbrother.   1956. 

Fletcher 1970    The Story of the Royal Horticultural Society 1804-1968.    By Harold R. Fletcher.  London, Oxford University Press for The Royal Horticultural Society, 1970.   564 pages.   

Folsom 1999    Plant Trivia Timeline.   Edited by J. Folsom and published by the the Huntington Botanical Gardens, California, 1999.  "The Timeline gives world history from the viewpoint of a botanist. It is the story of plant discovery and use, and addresses the roles of plants in human civilization."  All entries are footnoted, many entries have short comments, the page includes a detailed bibliography, and the format is vanilla text with no hyperlinks.   157K.  I found this gem on the Net in July, 1999.

Fussell 1992    The Story of Corn.   By B. Fussell.   New York, Knopf, 1992.   356 pages.  ISBN: 0394578058.

GardHist    Garden History Journal.  Volume 1, 1972 -    Journal of the Garden History Society.  

Garofalo 2001.   Gardening History Timeline - From Ancient Times to the 20th Century.  Distributed on the Internet at the Spirit of Gardening website, by Michael P. Garofalo, 1999-2002, 330KB+, html format; Version 4, March 1, 2002.   This popular and award winning document is revised and updated on a regular basis.   

Garofalo 2001Quotes for Gardeners.  The Spirit of Gardening web site.  Over 2,500 quotations, poems, sayings, and quips about gardening and the Green Way arranged by 130 topics.   Compiled by Michael P. Garofalo. 

Gerard 1633   The Herbal: Or, A General History of Plants.    By John Gerard.  New York, Dover Publications, 1975.  1678 pages.   Reproduction of the second editon of 1633. 

Gorer 1978    The Growth of Gardens.   By Richard Gorer.   1978.    An excellent detailed history about how specific plants were discovered and introduced into European and American gardens.  Each chapter covers plant collecting in particular countries. 

Gothein  1928    A History of Garden Art.    By Marie Luise Gothein.  Edited by Walter P. Wright.  Translated from the German [Geschichte der Garten-kunst] by Mrs. Archer-Hind.    With over six hundred illustrations.   London, J. M. Dent and Sons, 1928.  In two volumes: Volume I is 459 pages, and Volume II is 486 pages.  Volume II includes a bibliography and detailed index. 

Gras 1946     A History of Agriculture in Europe and America.
   By N. S. B. Gras.   New York, F.S. & Company, 1946 (Second Edition).   496 pages.

Greene 1983    Landmarks of Botanical History.    By E. L Greene.  Stanford, California, Stanford University Press, 1983.

Griswold 1992.  The Golden Age of American Gardens.    By M. Griswold and E. Weller.  New York, Harry N. Abrams, 1992.    408 pages.   ISBN: 0810933586.

Hadfield 1960    The History of British Gardening.    By Miles Hadfield.   1960. 

Harlan 1975    Crops and Man.  By J. R. Harlan.   Madison, Wisconsin, American Society of Agronomy: Crop Science Society of America, 1975. 

Harvey 1974    Early Nurserymen, with Reprints of Documents and Lists.
    By John H. Harvey.  1974

Harvey 1981    Medieval Gardens.    John H. Harvey.   1981. 

Haughton 1978.    Green Immigrants: The Plants That Transformed America.   By Claire Shaver Haughton.   Drawings by Russell Peterson.   New York, Harcourt, Brace, Jovanovich, 1978.    Index, 450 pages.

Hedrick 1950    A History of Horticulture in America to 1860.    Ulysses Prentice Hedrick.  New York, Oxford University Press, 1950.   551 pages.

Heiser 1985    Of Plants and People.  By C. Heiser.  Norman, University of Oklahoma Press, 1985.   237 pages.   ISBN: 0806119314.

Heiser 1990    Seed to Civilization.  By Charles B. Heiser.  Cambridge, Massachusetts, Harvard University Press, 1990.   Third Edition, First in 1981.  227 pages, index, bibliography.  ISBN:   0674796810. 

Helphand 1977   Landscape History
    A fine collection of images.  The many images at this web site were used in lectures in Kenneth Helphand's course on The History of Landscape Architecture - Art History (77/78). 

Henrey 1975    British Botanical and Horticultural Literature before 1800.  By B. Henrey.  London, 1975.  3 Volumes.

Heritage Roses Group
.  Quarterly newsletter.  1034 Taylor Avenue, Alameda, CA 94501.  Website.

Hill 1995   Grandmother's Garden:  The Old-Fashioned American Garden, 1865-1915.
   May Brawley Hill.   New York, Harry N. Abrams, Inc., 1995.    240 pages, index, bibliography, notes.   Extensive illustrations:   photographs, slides, paintings.  Especially noteworthy for its coverage of women gardeners and artists.  Covers all regions of the United States.  Ms. Hill is an art historian with a passionate interest in gardening.   

History of American Agriculture, 1776-2000    United States Department of Agriculture. 

History of Gardening Bookstore

Hirst 1999    Fountains.    By Bryan R. Hirst.  A dissertaion. 

Hitchmough 1997    Arts and Crafts Gardens.    By Wendy Hitchmough.  Photographs by Martin Charles.  New York, Rizzoli International, 1997.   Index, bibliography, 208 pages.   ISBN:   084782084X.

Hobhouse 1992    Plants in Garden History.   Penelope Hobhouse.   1992.  

Hobhouse 1997   Gardening Through the Ages:  An Illustrated History of Plants and Their Influence on Garden Styles - From Ancient Egypt to the Present Day.  By Penelope Hobhouse.   New York, Barnes and Noble, Pavilion Books, c 1997.   ISBN: 0760707332.  336 pages, index, bibliography, and hundreds of color illustrations and photographs.  

Howlett 1968    "The History and Literature of Horticulture: From Earliest Times to the Present."  Outline of course taught at Ohio State University by Professor Freeman S. Howlett in 1968.  An important Internet resource on the subject. 

Hoyles 1991    The Story of Gardening.     By Martin Hoyles.    London, Journeyman Press, c 1991.   Bibliography, black and white illustrations, index, 313 pages.   An examination of the social and political aspects of gardening in England and the British Empire with a decided emphasis on the hard life of garden workers, the exploitation of slaves and commoners working in gardens and on farms, the questionable control of land by aristocrats and wealthy landowners, and the colonial philosophy towards land, plant collecting, and peasants.   An interpretation of garden history from the point of view of the poor, laborers, reformists and socialists.   A unique, well researched, and thoughtful approach to the subject. 

Hoyles 1997    The Gardener's Perpetual Almanack: A Book of Days.   By Martin Hoyles.   With 233 illustrations, 54 in color. New York, Thames and Hudson Ltd., c 1997.  No page numbers provided, arranged by days of the year.  A very attractive collection of gardening lore, wit and wisdom, historical notes, literary selections, and fine illustrations. ISBN: 0500017638.  A wonderful gift for a friend.  

Hunt 2000
.   Greater Perfections: The Practice of Garden Theory.  By John Dixon Hunt.  Philadelphia, University
of Pennsylvania Press, 2000.  Index, bibliography, notes.   ISBN: 0812235061. 

Huxley 1985    Green Inheritance.
   The World Wildlife Fund Book of Plants.   By Anthony Huxley.  Foreward by David Attenborough.  Garden City, New York, Anchor Press, Doubleday, 1985.  193 pages, index.  ISBN:  0385196032.

Huxley 1985    An Illustrated History of Gardening.  
By Anthony Huxley and Charles Elliott.  The Lyons Press, 1998.   368 pages.   Reprint Edition.  Horticulture Garden Classic.   ISBN: 1558216936.

Hyams 1971    History of Gardens and Gardening.     By Edward Hyams.  1971.

Isaacson 1985    Gardening: A Guide to the Literature.    Richard T. Isaacson.   New York, Garland Publishing, 1985.   1985 pages, index.  ISBN: 0824090195. 

Isely 1994   One Hundred and One Botanists.    By D. Isely.   Ames, Iowa State University Press, 1994.  351 pages.  ISBN: 0813824982.

Janson 1996    Pomona's Harvest: An Illustrated Chronicle of Antiquarian Fruit Literature.    H. Frederick Janson.  1996.

Jefferson 1944   Thomas Jefferson's Garden Book.    By Thomas Jefferson.  Edited by Edwin Morris Betts.  Philadelphia, American Philosophical Society, 1944.   704 pages.  Anthology of Jefferon's garden writing from 1766 to 1824. 

Johnson 1989   The Story of Wine.   By Hugh Johnson.   London, Mitchell-Beazley, 1989 reprint of 1966 edition.  480 pages.   ISBN: 185732997X.

Journal of the New England Garden History Society 1991 -
    The New England Garden History Society of the Massachusetts Horticultural Society.  The NEGHS sponsors lectures, symposia, tours, and book signings.  The Journal is a fine scholarly publication with five issues available.  For membership information contact Allyson M. Hayward by e-mail or by phone: 781-235-3307.

Kramer 1973    The White House Gardens:  A History and Pictorial Record.   By Frederick L. Kramer, Mrs. Paul Mellon, Lloyd Goodrich, Harold Sterner, and Patricia Nixon.  1973. 

Krutch 1959    The Gardener's World.    Edited by Joseph Wood Krutch.  New York, Putnam, 1959.  476 pages. 

Laird 1998    The Flowering of the Landscape Garden: English Pleasure Gardens, 1720-1800.   By Mark Laird.  University of Pennsylvania Press, 1998.

Langenheim 1982    Botany - Plant Biology and Its Relation to Human Affairs.   By J. H. Langenheim and K. V. Thimann.  New York, John Wiley and Sons, 1982. 624 pages.  ISBN: 0471858803.

Leighton 1970    Early American Gardens: 17th Century.    By Ann Leighton.  1970. 

Leighton 1976    American Gardens in the Eighteenth Century: For Use or For Delight.     By Ann Leighton.  University of  Massachusetts Press, 1986, 1976.   Index, 514 pages.   ISBN: 0870235311.

Leighton  1987    American Gardens in the Nineteenth Century: For Comfort and Affluence.   By Ann Leighton.  University of Massachusetts Press, 1987.    ISBN: 087023532X.

Lemon  1968    The Golden Age of Plant Hunters.   By K. Lemmon.  London, 1968.

Levetin 1996    Plants and Society.    By E. Levetin and K. McMahon.  Dubuque, William C. Brown,  1996.    441 pages.  ISBN: 0697140644.

Lowther 1914    The Encyclopedia of Practical Horticulture.    Edited by Granville Lowther and William Worthington.   North Yakima, Washington, 1914.  3 Vols, 2037 pages.  

McLean 1981    Medieval English Gardens.    Teresa McLean.  1981.

McMahon 1857    McMahon's American Gardener.    Bernard McMahon.  New York, Funk and Wagnalls, 1976.  Reprinted from the 11th edition of 1857.   637 pages.   

Manks 1968    America's Garden Heritage:  Explorers, Plantsmen and Gardens of Yesterday.    Edited by Dorothy S. Manks. 1968. 

Marranca 1988    American Garden Writing:  Gleanings from Garden Lives Then and Now.    Edited by Bonnie Marranca.  New York, Penguin Books, 1988.  Index, 334 pages.  ISBN: .   A nice paperback anthology of short selections about gardens, plants, gardening, county life, and landscaping.  Very useful editorial comments about the authors of the selections.

Meyer 1999   A Brief History of Gardening.    By Scott Meyer.  A timeline chart.   Found in Organic Gardening Magazine, November/December 1999, p. 41-47. 

Morgan 1990     A Paradise Out of A Common Field:  The Pleasures and Plenty of the Victorian Garden.
  By J. Morgan and A. Richards.  New Yori, Harper & Row, 1990.  256 pages.  ISBN: 0060160349.

Morris 1983   The Gardens of China:  History, Art, and Meanings.    By Edwin T. Morris.  New York, Charles Scribner's Sons, 1983.   Index, notes, bibliography, 273 pages.  Highly informative text on the geography, history, agriculture and philosophy of China as they help explain the rich history of Chinese horticulture and gardens.  Well chosen black and white illustrations.

Morse 1902    Old Time Gardens.
   Alice Earle Morse.  1902.

Morton 1981    History of Botanical Science.    By A. G. Morton.  London, Academic Press, 1981.   474 pages.   ISBN: 0125084803.

Mosset 1991    The History of Garden Design.   Monique Mosset and George Teyssot.  1991.  

Musgrave 2000    The Plant Hunters: Two Hundred Years of Adventure and Discovery Around the World.  By Toby Musgrave, Chris Gardner, and Will Musgrave.  Ward Lock, Ltd., 1999.  224 pages.  ISBN: 0706377532.   Information about plant hunters, e.g., Sir Joseph Hooker, Robert Fortune, George Forrest, and Ernest H. Wilson. 

National Library of Canada 1999.    Cultivating Canadian Gardens: A History of Gardening In Canada.    Presented by the National Library of Canada.  Interesting facts about Huron agriculture, Canadian flora, pioneer gardens, and 19th Century seed catalogs.  Includes a bibliography, links, and photographs. 

Plants and Botany Trivia

Ponting 1991   A Green History of the World.    By C. Ponting.  New York, St. Martin's Press, 1991.  432 pages.   ISBN: 0312069891.

Plumptre 1993    The Garden Makers:  The Great Tradition of Garden Design from 1600 to the Present Day.   George Plumptre, 1993.

Pratt 1982    Tea Lover's Treasury.  By J. N. Pratt.  Santa Rosa, California, Cole Group, Inc, 1982.  240 pages.  ISBN: 156426565X.

Punch 1992    Keeping Eden: A History of Gardening in America.    Edited by W. T. Punch.  Boston, Bulfinch Press, Massachusetts Horticultural Society, 1992.  277 pages.   ISBN 0821218182. 

Rasmussen 1960.    Readings in the History of American Agriculture.   By W. D. Rasmussen.  Urbana, University of Illinois Press, 1960.    340 pages.   


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Reading to Uplift a Gardener's Spirits



Reed 1942.   A Short History of the Plant Sciences.    H. S. Reed.  Waltham. 

Reveal 1996    America's Botanical Beauty: Illustrations from the Library of Congress.
    By James L. Reveal.   1996.

Rhode 1932    The Story of the Garden.    Eleanour Sinclair Rhode.    1932, 1989. 

Root 1980.    Food.   By W. Root.   New York, Konecky & Konecky, 1980.  602 pages.  ISBN: 1568521014.

Rosegarten 1969.    The Book of Spices.   By F. Rosengarten.  Wynnewood, Pennsylvania, Livingston Publishing Company, 1969.    489 pages.  ISBN: 8709803129.

Rupp 1990    Red Oaks and Black Birches: The Science and Lore of Trees.   By R. Rupp.  Pownal, Vermont, Garden Way, 1990.    276 pages.  ISBN: 0882666207. 

Sauer 1952    Agriculatural Origins and Dispersals.    By C. O. Sauer.   New York, American Geographical Society, 1952.  

Scarre 1993    Smithsonian Timelines of the Ancient World.
   By Crhirs Scarre.  New York, Dorling Kindersley, First American Edition, 1993.  Index, maps, bibliography, 256 pages.  ISBN: 1564583058.  Each time range includes a long and detailed section on Food and Environment: Agrriculture, Farming, Animal Husbandry, game, lifestyle.     

Schama 1995    Landscape and Memory.   By Simon Schama.   New York, Vintage Books, 1995.   652 pages, extensive notes, index, and bibliography.  Color and b&w illustrations. ISBN: 0679402551.

Schery 1972    Plants for Man.   By Robert W. Schery.  Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, Prentice Hall, 1972.  Second Edition.  657 pages.

Schwanitz 1966    The Origin of Cultivated Plants.    By F. Schwanitz.  Cambridge, Mass., Harvard University, 1966.

Simo 1988    Loudon and the Landscape: From Country Seat to Metropolis 1783 - 1843.    By Melanie Louise Simo. 1988. 

Sinclair 2005
   The Spirituality of Gardening.  By Donna Sinclair.  Kelowna, BC, Canada, Northstone Publishing, Wood Lake Book, 2005.  Bibliography, 159 pages.  ISBN: 1896836747.  MGC.  Themes treated include: connections, balance, memory, healing, hope, spiritual practice, and resistance.  This book includes substantial portions, with my permission, of my History of Gardening Timeline.  

Simpson 1986    Economic Botany: Plants in Our World.
  By B. Simpson and M. Conner-Ogorzaly.   New York, McGraw Hill Book Company, 1986.  640 pages.

Skinner 1911    Myths and Legends of Flowers, Fruits and Plants: In All Ages and in All Times.   By Charles M. Skinner.    Philadelphia, J. B. Lippincott Company, 1911.   302 pages. 

Smith 1980    Smith's Guide to the Literature of the Life Sciences.  By Roger C. Smith, W. Malcolm Reid, and Arlene E. Luchsinger.  Minneapolis, Minnesota, Burgess Publications, 1980.  Ninth Edition.   223 pages. 

Southern Garden History Society
.  Founded in 1985.  Quarterly newsletter.  P. O. Box 316, Charlottesville, VA 22902.

Spongberg 1990.    A Reunion of Trees: The Discovery of Exotic Plants and their Introduction into North American and European Landscapes.   By Stephen A. Spongberg.   Cambridge, Mass., Harvard University Press, 1990.
Bibliography, index, 270 pages.  

Storck 1952    Flour for Man's Bread: A History of Milling.   By J. Storck and W. D. Teague.  Minneapolis, University of Minnesota Press, 1952.  382 pages.

Strong 1991    A Celebration of Gardens.
    By Roy Strong.    Decorated by Julia Trevelyan Oman.  London, HarperCollins, 1991.    376 pages.    ISBN: 0002158914.   A wonderful selection of modern and classic writing on gardens, plants and gardeners.  Large hardback format with attractive printing and illustrations. 

Stuart 1988.    The Garden Triumphant: A Victorian Legacy.   By David Stuart.   New York, Harper & Row, 1988.  Index, bibliography, 316 pages. 

Thacker 1979   The History of Gardens.    By Christopher Thacker.    University of California Press, Berkeley and Los Angeles, California, 1979.    Index, bibliography, 288 pages.  ISBN: 0520037367.    Hundreds of illustrations and photographs. 

Tolkowsky 1938    Hesperides:  A History of the Culture and Use of Citrus Fruits.   By S. Tolkowsky.  London,  John Bale & Sons, Curnow, Ltd., 1938.   371 pages. 

Trucker 1993    Kitchen Gardening in America.   David M. Tucker.   1993.

Tudge 1996    The Time Before History.    By C. Tudge.  New York, Touchstone, 1996.  366 pages.  ISBN: 0684830523.

United States Department of Agriculture 1999.   History of Agriculture Milestone Page.  

Vaughan 1997    The New Oxford Book of Food Plants:  A Guide to the Fruit, Vegetables, Herbs and Spices of the World.    By J. G. Vaughan and C. A. Geissler.  Illustrated by B. E. Nicholson.  With additional illustrations by Elisabeth Dowle and Elizabeth Rice.  Oxford, Oxford University Press, 1997.  Index, tables, recommended reading, 239 pages.  ISBN: 0198548257.  Revised and improved over the 1st edition of 1969.  Outstanding botanical illustrations!!   Every type of plant used as a food is covered.  Informative articles on each food item.    "The purpose of the book was to describe the origin, distribution, structure, cultivation, utilization, and nutritive value of the world's common food plants, as well as some lesser known species."   Want to purchase the New New Oxford Book of Food Plants?

Vavilov 1951    The Origin, Variation, Immunity and Breeding of Cultivated Plants.   By N. I. Vavilov.  Selected writings translated from the Russian by K. S. Chester.   Waltham, Massachusetts, Chronica Botanica Co., 1951.

Viola 1991    Seeds of Change.    By H. J. Viola and C. Margolis.  Washington, D.C., Smithsonian Institution, 1991. 278 pages. ISBN: 1560980362.

Visser 1986    Much Depends on Dinner.     By M. Visser.  New York, Grove Press, 1986.  351 pages.   ISBN: 0802199236.

Von Baeyer 1994.   Garden Voices: Two Centuries of Canadian Garden Writing.   Edited by Edwinna von Baeyer and Pleasance Crawford.   Vintage, Canada. 

Weishan 1999    The New Traditional Garden: A Practical Guide to Creating and Restoring Authentic American Gardens for Homes of All Ages.   By Michael Weishan.   Ballantine Books, 1999.   400 pages.   ISBN: 0345420411.

Whaley 1997    Mrs. Whaley and Her Charleston Garden.    By Emily Whaley and William P. Baldwin.  Algonquin Books, 1997.   224 pages.  ISBN: 1565121155.   A lively octogenarian reminisces about her life, friendships and gardening in the South. 

Wheeler 1986    Penguin Book of Garden Writing.  Edited by David Wheeler.   Penguin, 1986.  382 pages. 

Zohary 1994    Domestication of Plants in the Old World.    By D. Zohary and M. Hopf.   Clarendon, Oxford University Press, 2nd Edition (paperback) 1994.  279 pages.  ISBN: 0198548966.




History of Gardening Links



Advanced Bio Tech's History of Agriculture   A very informative essay. 

Agricultural History of North Carolina

Agricultural History: Pioneer Farming in the Watershed

The Agricultural Revolution

Agropolis Museum: Food and Agricultures of the World

Ancient Food News: Tracing the Origins and Use of Foods.
  This is an outstanding website!! 

Association of Garden Trusts


Biodynamic and Organic Gardening Resource Site

Botanical Gardens and Aboreta

Botanists and Plantsmen of Note

Botanists, Plantsmen, Designers and Gardeners of Note

Botany:  The History of the Science.
   By Peter V. Sengbusch.    Outstanding.  Good links. 

A Brief History of Agriculture

A Brief History of Pre-Darwinian Systematic Botany.
  Richard P. Wunderlin. 

British Society of the History of Science


A Century of Gardens.
    Articles from the Atlantic Monthly. 

Cereals: A Short History
   Grains: A Historical Note.

Charles Darwin Correspondence Project

Christy Taylor's Garden of History and Timelines

Chronology of Agriculture

Chronology of Horticulture
   Ohio State University

The Classical Chinese Garden Society Page

Coffee Timeline

Counter Culture Events- A Hippie History in Timeline Formats

Cultivating Canadian Gardens:
  A History of Gardening in Canada.  In English and French.

Directory of Botanists, Plantsmen, Designers and Gardeners of Note

Documentary Chronology of Selected Events in the Development of the American Conservation Movement, 1847-1920.

Edwinna von Baeyer - Canadian Landscape History

Enchanted Gardens of the Renaissance

Encyclopedia Britannica's History of Agriculture

Encyclozine: History of Horticulture
  Well worth a look. 

Enter Evolution:  Theory and History

Environmental Aesthetics and Chinese Gardens

Ethnobotanical Leaflets
.    Prepared by the University of Illinois.  Edited by Don Ugent. 

European Garden History

John Evelyn, 1620 - 1706


Flora of North America.  James L. Reveal and James S. Pringle.  Very good article with many photographs.

Food Timeline
.    An excellent timeline with detailed links to relevant webpages. 


Garden History Links by Edwinna von Baeyer  Very good information. 

Garden History Society

Garden History Timeline:  From Ancient Times to 1700

Garden History Timeline:  The Eighteenth Century

Garden History Timeline:  The Nineteenth Century

Garden History Timeline:  The 20th Century

Garden History Timeline:  References and Links

Garden Literature Review
   By Sally Williams. 

Gardening and Mythology

Gardening History Database - Greenfingers
  Mostly advertising.

Gay Gardener - Gardening History Index

Greenfingers Gardening History Database


The Hanging Gardens of Babylon (540 B.C.)

Herbals and Early Gardening Books
.  The Doris and Marc Patten Collection at Arizona State University.

Herbs, Herb History, Herb Gardening and Herbal Cooking Tips

Historic Garden Review Online

The History and Literature of Horticulture
  By Professor Freeman S. Howlett.  Ohio State University.

History of Agriculture in Saskatchewan, Canada

History of Agriculture Links
.   Study Web.  Informative annotations.

History of Agriculture by Encyclopedia Britannica

History of American Agriculture

History of Biology
.   A timeline by Janet Stein Carter.     75K.  

History of Farming: The American West
.   Large website maintained by Nancy Sween of the 
University of Kansas.  

History of Food and Agriculture

History of Gardening Bookstore

History of Gardens and Landscapes in the Indian Subcontinent

History of Horticulture
.  By Freeman S. Howlett.  Ohio State University.

History of Horticulture
.   EncycloZine On-line.  38K. 

History of Organic Farming

History of Rice

History of Science.
   Janet Stein Carter.  Excellent resource.  

History of Technology

Home History of Gardening Links

Horizon Books

The T. H. Huxley File


Iconography of Chinese Gardens

Index to American Botanical Literature
.   The New York Botanical Garden.

The Infography: Botanical Explorations in the United States and Canada

Information on UK Gardens

Introduction to Dutch Gardens and Garden Architecture

Japanese Garden Journal

   An Informal History of Evolutionary Biology Web Site.  1850-1950.   Includes a timeline,
bibliography, and links to many other webpages.  Well organized and informative.

Carolus Linnaeus [Carl von Linne]   (1707-1778)  BiographySwedish Museusm of Natural History,   Linne Online.

: History of Natural History and the History of Botany.

Links to Online Herbal Resources

London Landscape Guide
   Edited by Tom Turner. 

National Council for the Conservation of Plants and Gardens - England

National Gardens Scheme - England

Nineteenth Century in Review.
   By Kathy E. Gill.

Museum of Garden History

Museum of Garden History - Garden Tools

Ohio State University History of Horticulture
.   By Freeman S. Howlett.

Old Lawnmower Club

The Origin of Horticulture
   Ohio State University

The Origins and Ancient History of Wine


Papers of Sir Joseph Banks

Plant Trivia Timeline
   Excellent!!  157K+, ascii.txt, no links.  From the Huntington 
Botanical Gardens, California. 

Potato History

A Quiet Revolution
: Origins of Agriculture in Eastern North America.  By Ruth Selig.  31K.

The Scientific Revolution: Readings, Resources and Links.
   Robert A. Hatch.  

Selected Botanical WWW Sites
.   University of Florida Herbarium.

Story of Farming
.  A very informative document produced by history teacher, Eric Rymer.  Facts about
areas of the world, bibliography, information about cities, and background on farm implements.

Studies in the History of Gardens & Designed Landscapes
, formerly the Journal of Garden History

Study Web - Sciences:   Life Sciences:  Agriculture:  The History of Agriculture

Sunset Magazine, 1898 - 1998

Sweet Oranges: The Biogeography of Citrus sinensis
.  By Stephen Hui.

Systematic Botany Resources for Reference Librarians.
  University of Maryland.

Taxonomic Botany and Floristics in North America North of Mexico:
A Review.  By James L. Reveal and James S. Pringle.  

Think Quest Gardening History Project
  It was my pleasure to help and encourage the European
students that worked on this Think Quest Gardening Project. 

A Timeline:  Agriculture in the 20th Century
   By Kathy E. Gill.    A Growing Resource.

Tobacco Timeline
.   "A Capsule History of Tobacco."  By Gene Borio.   330K. 

Trees: Living Links to the Classical Past.
  By John M. McMahon.

United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), History Collection.   Primary source materials.  

USDA.  History of American Agriculture
, 1776-2000

Virtual Landscape Library (LMRC - VILAR)

Where Seed Crops Originated




The Twenty Best Garden History Books
of the Twentieth Century

My Nominees


Berrall  1966    The Garden: An Illustrated History.

GardHist 1972-     Garden History Journal.

Gothein  1928    A History of Garden Art.

Leighton 1976    American Gardens in the Eighteenth Century: For Use or For Delight. 

Leighton  1987    American Gardens in the Nineteenth Century: For Comfort and Affluence.

Morris 1983   The Gardens of China:  History, Art, and Meanings.

Strong 1991    A Celebration of Gardens. 

Thacker 1979   The History of Gardens.





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The History of Gardening Timeline

Noteworthy Gardens, Events, Persons, Publications and Facts in the History of Gardening
Includes Related Information about Agriculture, Culinary Arts, Culture, Botany, Horticulture and Technology

Compiled by Michael P. Garofalo


From Ancient Times to 1600

The Seventeenth Century:  1600 - 1699

The Eighteenth Century:  1701 - 1799

The Nineteenth Century: 1800 - 1899

The Twentieth Century:  1900 - 1999

Reference Sources and Selected Links






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More Quotes




Spirituality and Concerns of the Soul


Weeds and Weeding

Simplicity and the Simple Life

Pulling Onions
Quips, Maxims and Observations by Michael P. Garofalo

The Essence of Gardening

Working in the Garden

Garden Digest Links


Haiku Poetry  -  Links and References

Cliches for Gardeners and Farmers

The History of Gardening Timeline
From Ancient Times to the 20th Century

Short Poems by Mike Garofalo

Seeing and Vision

Beauty in the Garden

Seasons and Time

Comments about this Web Site

Jokes, Riddles and Humor


Quotes for Gardeners

Quotes, Sayings, Proverbs, Poetry, Maxims, Quips, Cliches, Adages, Wisdom
A Collection Growing to Over 2,000 Quotes, Arranged by 105 Topics
Many of the Documents Include Recommended Readings and Internet Links.
Compiled by Michael P. Garofalo



The Spirit of Gardening




Copyrighted 1999 - 2003 by Michael P. Garofalo.  All rights reserved.


I Welcome Your Comments, Ideas, Contributions, and Suggestions
E-mail Mike Garofalo in Red Bluff, California

A Short Biography of Michael P. Garofalo

Reference Sources for the History of Gardening Timeline
66K, March 19, 2003, Version 4.3.
This document was first distributed on the Internet on January 1, 1999.

The Spirit of Gardening

Haiku and Zen Poetry


Quotes for Gardeners

Index to the History of Gardening Timeline