The History of Gardening: A Timeline
The Seventeenth Century:  1600 - 1699

Noteworthy Gardens, Events, Persons, Publications, and Facts in the History of Gardening
References and Web Links Organized by Time Periods
Some Information about Agriculture, Farming, Culinary Arts, Botany, Horticulture, Technology, Arts and Crafts

Compiled by Michael P. Garofalo

March 1,  2002



From Ancient Times to 1600

The Seventeenth Century:  1600 - 1699

The Eighteenth Century:  1701 - 1799

The Nineteenth Century: 1800 - 1899

The Twentieth Century:  1900 - 1999

Reference Sources and Selected Links



Reminder: You can search the Gardening Timeline and the Spirit of Gardening website.

Search Tips and Advanced Atomz Searching Techniques for Searching the Spirit of Gardening Website






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The History of Gardening: A Timeline
The Seventeenth Century




    European forests are becoming depleted, and shortages of wood effect various industries.  In later years, coal, petroleum,  hydroelectric and finally nuclear power sources are increasingly utilized.  [Ponting 1991]

    Mannerism in gardening.



    Hyde Park, London, opened to the public by King James I. 
    Isagoges in Rem Herbarium.  Spigelius.  Important for his instructions on making dried herbarium specimens.  
    Akbar the Great (1556-1605), Mogul emperor of India and garden lover.
    Jerusalem artichokes in the eastern U.S. 



    Sassafras beverages are very popular in England.   [Rupp 1990]



    The beginning of tobacco cultivation in Virginia.  
    History of Agriculture in Colonial America. 
    Florilegium.   Emanuel Sweert.  Flowering plants.  
    Europeans are introduced to drinking tea.  Tea products and information.
    Dairy cows brought to Jamestown colony in Virginia.



   Hortus Eystettensis.  Besler.  660 species of flowering plants. 
   Florilegium Novum.   Jean Theodore de Bry.   Flowering plants. 



    The English Hus-Wife  "Contayning The inward and outward vertues which ought to be in a
compleat woman; As, her skill in Physicke, Cookery, Banqueting-stuffe, Distillation, Perfumes, Wooll, Hemp, Flax,
Dayries, Brewing, Baking, and all other things belonging to an houshould."   Gervase Markham.  London,
John Beale.  Recipe for rice pudding.

    First shipment of green coffee beans to a European city, Venice.



    The Country House-Wife's Garden.   William Lawson.  Includes knot garden designs.
    A New Orchard and Garden
.    William Lawson.



    First botanic garden in England, the Oxford Physic Garden.
    Americans are busy brewing beer. 
    Novum organum.  Frances Bacon.  The scientific method of observation and experiment is advocated.
    The first American Thanksgiving feast was celebrated in Plymouth Colony by the pilgrims and Massasoit Indians. 
    Katsura Rikyu Imperial Villa, Kyoto, Japan



    Pinax.  By Gaspard Bauhin.  Exhaustive compilation of plant names and descriptions, later helpful to Linneaus. 



    Gaspard Bauhin (1560-1624), Pinax Theatri Botanici.   Used a clear concept of genus and species in his botannical classification of 6,000 plants. 



    Of Gardens.   Francis Bacon.  An essay on the ideal 30 acre farm.  
    Corn porridge meals in New York. 



    Paradisi in Sole Paradisus Terrestris.   John Parkinson.
    Native American Technology and Art   An excellent site developed by Tara Pringle.  Lots of good information, articles, and links. 



Vegetables - Quotes for Gardeners



    The city of Constantinople is renowned for flower gardens and horticulture for centuries before and after.
    Ogier Ghiselin de Busbecq, ambassador from the court of Ferdinand I in Vienna, brings back tulips and other bulbs given to him by Suleiman the Magnificent in Istanbul, Turkey.   The Dutch soon began growing tulips as a major cash crop.   The Dutch had greatly expanded their fertile agricultural land by over 400,000 acres by draining lakes and swamps with windmills and using dykes and levies to control the water. 



    The Herball or Generall Historie of Plants. John Gerard.  London, 1633.  Thomas Johnson, editor,
Dover Publications, 1975.



    Yuan Yeh.   Chi Ch'eng.  Treatise on Chinese rock gardens. 
    The Jardin des Plantes was established in Paris.
    The peak of Tulip buying mania amonst wealthy Dutch collectors. 
    Life in the Jamestown colony.


    John Tradescant The Younger makes his first trip to Virginia, America. 



    John Tradescant the Elder (1570 - 1638)  Gardener to Charles I of England, and avid plant collector.
    Honeybees introduced into the American colonies.




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In Japan, Matsudaira Yorishige greatly improves the Ritsurin Koen estate and gardens in Takamatsu City, Shikoku island, Japan.  



Hesperides, sive De Malorum aureorum Cultura et Usus Libri Quator (Hesperides, or Four Books on the Culture and Use of the Golden Apples).  By J. B. Ferrarius.   A massive study (500 pages) of the cultivation of citrus crops.  
     The use of greens and vegetables in salads.  



    Rice cultivation begins in North and South Carolina.  Sweet potato cultivation in Virginia.  The New England rum industry uses sugar and molasses.  The Caribbean islands grow sugar cane.   [Root 1980]



Green Way Blog by Michael P. Garofalo




    Jean Baptiste van Helmont conducts experiments with water, soil and plants. 
    Agrarian revolution underway in Europe due to advantages of new crops like potatoes.




    Of Agriculture    By Abraham Cowley (1618-1667).

    European Garden History   Presented by Trans Europe Tours.  Tours of famous 15th to 18th century gardens in England, Scotland, Wales, France, Belgium and the Netherlands.  

    Cultivating Canadian Gardens: A History of Gardening In Canada.    Presented by the National Library of Canada.  Interesting facts about Huron agriculture, Canadian flora, pioneer gardens, and 19th Century seed catalogs.  Includes a bibliography, links, and photographs.     

    The Enchanted Gardens of the Renaissance   Facts about three Renaissance gardens near Rome:   Villa D'Este - Tivoli, Villa Lante - Bagnaia, Bomarzo's Sacred Groves. 

    Roman Catholic Archbishop Usher estimates that the world is 6000 years old, and Adam was alive in 4004 B.C..



Reminder: You can search the Spirit of Gardening website.

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    A Design for Plentie, by a Universall Planting of Fruit Trees.     Samuel Hartlib.
    The English Physician (Culpepper's Complete Herbal).     Nicholas Culpepper. 
    Coffee being used in England.  Coffee Specialties: Products and Information  
    Gardens in the Netherlands.



    A Treatise of Fruit Trees.    Ralph A. Austen.



    Taj Mahal in India.
    An American harvest feast.





Reviews and Awards




    Ferrari, Giovanni Battista  (1584-1655).    Flora, Ouero, Cultura di Fiori.



    Musaeum Tradescantianum.    John Tradescant the Younger (1608-1662).  Plant collector. 

    The Tradescants' botanical garden at Lambeth, England, had over 1600 named plants in cultivation.



    Imperial garden, Katsura, in Japan.
    Shugaku, pleasure garden in Kyoto, Japan.



    The Accomplisht Cook.   By Robert May.


    The Compleat Gard'ner.   John Evelyn.
    Kalendarium Hortense.   John Evelyn.    Popular gardening almanac. 
    William Coles (1626-1662).  The Art of Simpling.



    Sylva, or a Discourse of Forest Trees.    John Evelyn (Portrait)



    The Age of Discovery
    Flora.    John Rea.
    Micrographia.    Robert Hooke.   He devised a useful lighted compound microscope.  Described the celluar structure of cork. 



    First Scotish botanic garden, in Edinburgh.
    The English Garden.   Leonard Meager. 
    Yamato honzo (The Flora of Japan).  Kaibara Ekken.



Trees - Quotes for Gardeners




    The Anatomy of Plants by Nehemiah Grew and  Anatome Plantarum Idea by Marcello Malpighi.  Detailed works on the anatomy of plants.  



    Chelsea Physic Garden in England founded by the Society of Apothecaries.



    Terra, a Philosophical Discourse of Earth.     John Evelyn.
    Flora Ceres et Pomona.    John Rea.


    Systema Horticulturae, or the Art of Gardening.     John Woolridge.
    Nurseryman William Lucas's list of plants for sale. 



    Cranberries in New Jersey.



    Methodus Plantarum Nova.    John Ray.
    Heligan ("The Willows") Gardens, Cornwall, England.  Lost Gardens of Heligan.
    De Verstandige Kock, Dutch cooking.




    Upon the Gardens of Epicurus; or, Of Gardening.    By Sir William Temple (1628-1699).    
    Rural Retirement to English Gardens.
    Bagels made in Austria.
    Summary of the late 17th Century achievements in microscopy.



    Historia Plantarum.   John Ray. 
    American kitchen gardens from 1600-1800 were planted based on astrology, featured many herbs, used raised beds well dunged and dug in the autumn, and were fenced in to keep animals out. 




    Rice culture in South Carolina.



    Honcho shoku-kagami (Mirror of the Culinary Items of Japan).   Hirano Hitsudai.




The History of Gardening Timeline

Noteworthy Gardens, Events, Persons, Publications and Facts in the History of Gardening
Includes Related Information about Agriculture, Farming, Culinary Arts, Botany, Horticulture, Technology, Arts and Crafts

Compiled by Michael P. Garofalo

From Ancient Times to 1600

The Seventeenth Century:   1600 - 1699

The Eighteenth Century: 1701 - 1799

The Nineteenth Century: 1800 - 1899

The Twentieth Century:  1900 - 1999

Reference Sources and Selected Links





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Copyrighted 1999 - 2002 by Michael P. Garofalo.  
All rights reserved.


I Welcome Your Comments, Ideas, Contributions, and Suggestions
E-mail Mike Garofalo in Red Bluff, California

A Short Biography of Michael P. Garofalo

Gardening History Timeline: The Seventeenth Century:  1600 - 1699
27K, Version 4.3.   March 1, 2002.
This document was first distributed on the Internet on January 1, 1999.


The Spirit of Gardening

Quotes for Gardeners


Index to the History of Gardening Timeline