The History of Gardening: A Timeline
The 20th Century: 1900 - 1999

Noteworthy Gardens, Events, Persons, Publications, and Facts in the History of Gardening
References and Web Links Organized by Time Periods
Some Information about Agriculture, Farming, Culinary Arts, Botany, Horticulture, Technology, Arts and Crafts

Compiled by Michael P. Garofalo

March 19, 2003



From Ancient Times to 1600

The Seventeenth Century:  1600 - 1699

The Eighteenth Century:  1701 - 1799

The Nineteenth Century: 1800 - 1899

The Twentieth Century:  1900 - 1999

Reference Sources and Selected Links


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The History of Gardening: A Timeline
The 20th Century




    The Cyclopedia of American Horticulture.   Liberty Hyde Bailey.  Macmillan, 4 volumes. 
    Culture of the Citrus in California.     B. M. Lelong. 
    Kate Greenway (1846-1901)  English artist and author of children's books. 
    Home and Garden.
    Gertrude Jekyll.  
    A Horticultural Handbook.     J. L. Budd
    John Ruskin  (1819-1900)  Art critic, arts and crafts movement leader in England.
    Charles Dudley Warner  (1829-1900)   America author, editor and poet. 



    The Art and Craft of Garden Making.    Thomas Mawson.
    Gasoline powered tractor built in Iowa by Iowans Charles Hatt and Charles Parr.
    Lilies for English Gardens.    Gertrude Jekyll. 
    The New Rhubarb Culture.    J. E. Morse.
   Old Time Gardens.   Alice Morse Earle.
   Our National Parks.   John Muir.
   A yellow rose, Soleil d'Or, begins a new phase in rose breeding. 



    Sun Dials and Roses of Yesterday.      Alice Morse Earle. 
    The Tale of Peter Rabbit.   Beatrix Potter.
    Giverny Gardens, France.   Home of Claude Monet (1883-1926). 
    Newlands Reclamation Act in the U.S.  Established tax structure to build irrigation projects in the West.



    Frederick Law Olmstead  (1822-1903).  Famous American landscape architect.  Designed Central Park in New York with Calvert Vauz, and the Biltmore estate.  Active advocate for urban parks.   

    Italian Villas and their Gardens.    Edith Wharton.




Reviews and Awards




   American Horticultural Society established. 
   Chestnut tree blight begins in the Easter United States and eventually destroy the American chestnut trees.
   Citrus Fruits and Their Culture.     H. Harold Hume. 



Flowers - Quotes for Gardeners



    Flora and Sylva (1903-1905).    Edited by William Robinson.
    The Fruit Growers Guide.     B. F. Hurst.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry -     American Society of Biological Chemists.   
    The Orchard and Fruit Garden.     E. P. Powell.
    Successful Fruit Culture.     Samuel T. Maynard.
    The Ways of Nature.   John Burroughs
    The USDA Forest Service was established under the leadership of Gifford Pinchot.



    The ABC of Corn Culture.     Perry G. Holden.
    Biggle Orchard Book: Fruit and Orchard Gleanings from Bough to Basket
.      Jacob Biggle. 
    The Garden That I Love.     Alfred Austin.
    Handbook of Flower Pollination.     Paul E. Knuth.
    The Pecan and Its Culture.     H. Harold Hume.
    The Writings of Henry David Thoreau (20 Volumes).    Edited by John C. Broderick.



    Agronomy Journal-     Published by the American Society of Agronomy.
    Flower Decoration in the House.
    Gertrude Jekyll. 
    Plant Breeding:  Comments on the Experiments of Wilson and Burbank.    Hugo de Vries.
    Plant Physiology and Ecology.     Frederic E. Clements. 
    The Unheated Greenhouse.     K. L. Davidson.



    Colour in the Flower Garden.    Gertrude Jekyll. 
    First commercial avocado grove in California in San Marino.
    Greenhouse Management.    L. R. Taft.
    The Manor House Garden in Upton Grey, England, designed by Gertrude Jekyll.
    The Seven Lamps of Architecture, John Ruskin.



    Foundations of American Grape Culture.    Thomas V. Munson.
    Fungous Diseases of Plants.
     Benjamin M. Duggar.
    My Rock Garden.    Reginald Farrer.
    On the Making of Gardens.    George R. Sitwell (1860-1943)



    Diseases of Cultivated Plants and Trees.    George E. Massee.   
    The Fight for Conservation.  
Gifford Pinchot.
    French Method of Intensive Cultivation.    
H. Herrmann. 
    The Mutation Theory.
     Hugo de Vries.
    One American farmer could produce enough to sustain 7 people. 



The Four Seasons - Quotes for Gardeners




    Alice Morse Earle (1853-1911).  American writer on colonial history and gardening.
    Bacillus thuringiensis (BT) is isolated.  Sold comercially in U.S. in 1958.
    Farmers of Forty Centuries:  Permanent Agriculture in China, Korea and Japan.    F. H. King.
    Field and Woodland Plants.    W. S. Furneaux.   
    Sir Joseph Dalton Hooker (1817-1911) Botanist, plant collector in India, administrator, rhododendron enthusiast
    Practical Orcharding on Rough Lands.      Shepard Wells Moore.



    Gardening for Pleasure.    Peter Henderson. 
    Gardens for Small Country Houses.    Gertrude Jekyll and Lawrence Weaver.
    Injurious Insects:  How to Recognize and Control Them.     Walter C. O'Kane.
    Landscape Gardening in Japan.   Joseph Conder.
    The Potato.    Eugene H. Grubb and W.S. Guilford.



    Alfred Austin  1835-1913
    Rudolph Steiner's Anthropohosphy influences some modern trends in organic farming.



    Annals of Applied Biology-      Published by the Association of Applied Biologists, London.
    The Encyclopedia of Practical Horticulture.     Granville Lowther and William Worthington.   3 Vols.
    Fundamentals of Plant Breeding.     John M. Coulter.
    John Muir (1838-1914)  American naturalist, writer, conservationist, explorer, mountaineer.
    The peanut research of George Washington Carver is distributed.
    Physiological Plant Anatomy.   Gottlieb Haberlandt.   Translated from 4th German Edition.
    The Standard Cyclopedia of Horticulture.    Liberty Hyde Bailey.  Macmillan, 6 volumes. 



    Fungoid Diseases of Farm and Garden Crops.      Thomas Milburn.
    Nobel Prize awarded to Richard Martin Willstätter for his work with plant pigments, particularly chlorophyll.
    The Holy Earth.    Liberty Hyde Bailey.



    Agricultural Entomology for Students, Farmers, Fruit-Growers and Gardeners.     Hebert Osborn.
    Japanese beetles appear in New Jersey, carried by imported nursery stock.
    Modern Fruit Marketing.     Bliss S. Brown.
    Wisconsin farms develop innovative farming techniques for improving red potato production.



    Bilder ur Nordens Flora.   Swedish botanist Carl Axel Magnus Lindman (1856 - 1928).
    Ford Motor Company's Fordson tractor was introduced.
    A Manual of Fruit Diseases.     Lexemuel R. Hesler and H. H.  Whetzel.
    The Strawberry in North America.     Stevenson W. Fletcher. 
    A Textbook of Mycology and Plant Pathology.     John W. Harshberger.



    Neltje Blanchan (1865-1918)  American garden writer.
   Garden Ornament.    Gertrude Jekyll. 




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    The English Rock Garden.    Reginald Ferrer. 
    Exbury Gardens, England
    Nebraska Tractor Test Law
    Manual of American Grape Growing.     U. P. Hedrick.
    Inbreeding and Outbreeding.   E. M. East and D. F. Jones.  Important work on corn breeding.
    Prohibition of alcohol in U.S. begins; 18th Amendment.
    Frank Scott (1828-1919)  American landscape architect
    Sturtevant's Notes on Edible Plants.    U. P. Hedrick.
    The War Garden Victorious   Charles Lathrop Pack.  



    American Orchid Society founded.
    Beet Sugar Manufacturing.    Great Western Sugar Company.
    Beatrix Farrand commissioned to create the Dumbarton Oaks Garden in Washington, D.C..
    Ecology-   Published by the Ecological Society of America.



Jokes, Riddles and Humor for Gardeners




    John Burroughs (1837-1921).  American naturalist and writer



    The Apple Tree.     Liberty Hyde Bailey.
    The Cyclopedia of Hardy Fruits.    U. P. Hedrick.
    The Fundamentals of Fruit Production.    Victor R. Gardner, F. C. Bradford, and H. D. Hooker.
    The Golden Bough: A Study in Magic and ReligionSir James Frazier.
    Standard Cyclopedia of Horticulture
.    Liberty Hyde Bailey.  3 Volumes.
    Horticulture Magazine of the American Horticultural Society - 
    The Nature and Properties of Soils.    T. Lyttleton Lyon and Harry O. Buckman (1922-1952).
        Ninth edition in 1984 by Nyle C. Brady. 
    George Forrest (1873-1922)   Plant hunter and collector.



    Civilization and Ethics.    Albert Schweitzer.
    Marion Cran - Popular BBC radio gardening broadcaster.
    Nature in American Literature.   Norman Foerster.  
    The Spirit of the Garden.   Martha Brookes Hutcheson.  Garden design book with outstanding photographs.



    American Fruits: Their Progagation, Cultivation, Harvesting and Distribution.     Samuel Fraser.
    Commercial Floriculture; A Practical Manual for the Retail Grower.    Fritz Bahr. 
    Commercial productin of soybeans begins in the United States.   [Baker 1978]



    Essentials of Systematic Pomology.      B. D. Drain. 
    Italian Gardens of the Renaissance.    Geoffrey Alan Jellicoe (1900-).  This was the first work by this famous English            landscape architect. 
    Trial of John T. Scoopes in America for teaching the theory of evolution in a public school.



    Luther Burbank  (1849-1926)     Luther Burbank was a horticulturist and free thinker.
        He lived in Santa Rosa, California. 
    Citrus Diseases and Their Control.     H. S. Fawcett.
    The Land.    Vita Sackville-West.  Life of an English farmer during one year.
    Manual of Plant Diseases.     Frederick D. F. Heald.
    Claude Monet (1840-1926).   French impressionist painter.
    Plant Physiology -     American Society of Plant Physiologists. 



    Orcharding.  Victor R. Gardner, F. C. Bradford, and H. D. Hooker.
    The Potato:  Its History, Varieties, Culture and Diseases.      T. P. McIntosh.



    Destructive and Useful Insects.     Clell L. Metcalf and W.P. Flint. 
    Hunger Fighters.     Paul H. De Kruif.  
    Plant Diseases.     Frederick T. Brooks.
    Principles of Plant Pathology.     Charles E. Owens. 
    Truck Crop Plants.     Henry A. Jones and J. T. Rosa.



    The Cactus and Succulent Society was founded.    
    The Gardener's Year.    Karel Capek (1890-1938)
    Soils and Soil Management.     Charles E. Millar.
    Wind Harps.    Marion Cran. 



Work - Quotes for Gardeners



    Fungous Diseases of Plants in Agriculture.      Jacob Eriksson. 
    The Genetical Theory of Natural Selection.      R. A. Fisher.
    New Pioneering in Garden Design.    Fletcher Steele.
    Sissinghurst Castle in England is purchased by Sackville-West and Nicolson.
    Vegetable Growing.     James E. Knott.

    Ernest H. Wilson (1876-1930)  English botanist and plant collector in East Asia.  Collected for the Arnold Arboretum at Harvard University, and Veitch nursery.   Collected over 3,000 plants.



    Cotton: History, Botany, Genetics.     Thomas H. Kearney. 
    Mendelism and Evolution.     E. B. Ford.
    A Modern Herbal.    Mrs. M. Grieve.
    Plant Physiology.     Edwin C. Miller.
    Waste Products of Agriculture: Their Utilization as Humus.   Sir Albert Howard.   Important composting book.



    Gardens in America.     Marion Cran.  

    Gertrude Jekyll (1843-1932)  Very influential garden designer, painter, expert on garden color, and the author of 10 books and hundreds of magazine articles.  Collaborated with Edwin Lutyens.  Often at her garden in Munstead Wood in Surrey, England.  For More Information:  Jekyll 1.     Jekyll 2.   Jekyll 3.

    Landscape Design of the Future.    Fletcher Steele.
    James Markham obtained the first patent issued for a tree - a special peach tree.
    Life of Mendel.     Hugo Iltis. 
    The Story of the Garden.   Eleanour Sinclair Rhode.



    Agricultural Adjustment Act signed in U.S..  Started price supports for farmers during Depression.
    The best new vegetable and flower varieties begin competition for being All-American Selections.
    Cha-No-Yu: The Japanese Tea Ceremony.    A.L. Sadler.
    The Charm of Gardens.    Dion Clayton Calthrop. 
    The Diary of a Plain Dirt Gardener.    Harry R. O'brien.
    Thomas Hayton Mawson (1861-1933).   English garden designer, landscape architect, and town planner.
    Recent Advances in Agricultural Plant Breeding.     Herbert Hunter and H. Martin Leake.
    Van Dyke, Henry (1852-1933).  Clergyman, author, reformer, nature lover.



Quotes for Gardeners

Quotes, Sayings, Proverbs, Poetry, Maxims, Quips, Cliches, Adages, Wisdom
A Collection Growing to Over 2,000 Quotes Arranged by Over 105 Topics
Many of the Documents Include Recommended Readings and Internet Links.
Compiled by Michael P. Garofalo




    John Deere, Model A, gasoline tractor in production. 
    Gardening for Beginners: A Handbook to the Garden.   E. T. Cook.   8th Edition.
    The Genetics of Garden Plants.     M. B. Crane.
   The Nursery-Manual; a Complete Guide to the Multiplication of Plants.    Liberty H. Bailey.
    The great dust storms in Oklahoma and other mid-west states begins.



    Five Acres and Independence.    M. G. Kains. 
    Gertrude Jekyll (1843-1935)  English garden writer and designer.
    The Living Garden.    E. J. Salisbury.
    Rural Electric Administration Act in the U.S..
    Soil Conservation Service in the U.S.
    Sunset Western Garden Book.    Sunset Magazine.
    William Robinson (1838-1935).   Irish gardener, writer.



    Fool's Garden.    Muriel Stuart.
    Albert Fuller Graves (1859-1936).   American garden and plant painter.
    Green Laurels:  The Lives and Achievements of the Great Naturalists
.    Donald C. Peattie.
    Modern Garden Design.     Fletcher Steele.



    Economic Botany.     Albert F. Hill.  



Vegetables - Quotes for Gardeners




    Economic Annuals and Human Cultures.     O. Ames. 
    Food, Drug and Cosemetic Act in the U.S..  Unquestionably, the federal and state laws aimed at improving in the quality of food manufacturing, processing, distributing, and retailing; the quality of drugs; the quality of water; and improving public sanitation have all contibuted significantly to the 43% increase in life span of Americans in the 20th century.  
    Gardens in the Modern Landscape.    Christopher Tunnard (1910-1979), English garden designer.
    International Harvester Farmall A gasoline tractor in production.  
    The Secret Garden.    Frances Hodgson Burnett.
    The Structure of Economic Plants.     Herman E. Hayward.
    Louise Beeber Wilder (1878-1938).  American garden writer



    Flowering Earth.    Donald Culross Peattie.
    Meadow and Pasture Insects.     Herbert Osborn.
    The Peace Rose is developed in the garden of the French nurseryman, Francis Meilland.
    Propagation of Horticultural Plants.    Guy W. Adriance and F.R. Brinson. 



    An Agricultural Testament.   Sir Albert Howard.    Organic gardening.  Composting History.
    Green Enchantment: The Magic Spell of Gardens.
     Rosetta E. Clarkson.
    Growth of Plants.     William Crocker.
    Insect Transmission of Plant Diseases.      Julian G.  Leach.
    Plant Microtechnique.     Donald A. Johansen.



    Frost Killing and the Hardiness of Plants.     J. Levitt.
    Hortus.     Liberty Hyde Bailey.  
    Father George Schoener (1864-1941)  Botanist and rose hybridizer    Information



    Biodynamic Farming and Gardening.     Ehrenfried Pfeiffer. 
    Forty percent of all U.S. vegetables are produced in Victory Gardens.
    Organic Gardening and Farming -    Magazine published by Jerome I. Rodale. 
    A Short History of the Plant Sciences.  H. S. Reed.



    Biological Control of Insects.     Hugh Nicol. 
    DDT introduced to the U.S..
    George Washington Carver  (1864-1943).   Agricultural researcher, botanist, plant breeder.
    German scientists synthesize methyl parathion, an extremely toxic insecticide.
    Frank A. Waugh (1869-1943).   American landscape architect.
    Famine in Bengal: over 3 million people die.



Trees - Quotes for Gardeners




    The Garden Book (1766-1824).    Thomas Jefferson.   Edited and annotated by Edwin Morris Betts.
            Thomas Jefferson kept a detailed journal on his gardening/farming activities.
    Edwin Lutyens (1869-1944)   English architect, and landscape designer.  Collaborated with Gertrude Jekyll. 




    Allotmenent and Garden Guides.  Ministry of Agriculture, United Kingdon.  8 Pamphlets.
    Pay Dirt.    Jerome Rodale.



    Elzeard Bouffier   (?-1946)
    Vita Sackville-West begins weekly gardening column in the Observer.   Continued till 1961.



    Achille Duchene (1866-1947).   Garden designer of international reputation. 
    The Fig.     Ira J. Condit.
    Soil and Health Foundation founded by J. I. Rodale.  Later became the Rodale Institute.
    Trees for Town and Country.    Brenda Colvin. 



    Land and Landscape.    Brenda Colvin.
    Aldo Leopold (1888-1948).  American naturalist, writer, and conservationist.
    Paul Herman Muller, Swiss scientist, wins the Nobel Prize for Medicine.   He developed DDT in 1939.
    Our Plundered Planet.   By Fairfield Osborn.    An early expose of the effects of DDT on wildlife.
    Plant and Soil -     Biomonthly journal from the Hague. 
    Study of Plant Communities: An Introduction to Plant Ecology.      H. J. Oosting.    



    Photosynthesis in Plants.    J. Franck.  
    Sand County Almanac.    Aldo Leopold.
    Water in the Physiology of Plants.     A. S. Crafts, et al.



    Landscape for Living.    Garrett Eckbo.  
    Orchids:  Their Description and Cultivation.      Charles H. Curtis.
    Eleanour Sinclair Rhode (1881-1950)
    There are more tractors on American farms than horses. 
    Water from the new Grand Coulee Dam allows farms in easter Washington to grow white potatoes.



Reminder: You can search the Spirit of Gardening website.

Search Tips and Advanced Atomz Searching Techniques for Searching the Spirit of Gardening Website







    Frances T. Dana (1862-1952).    American naturalist.
    Euphytica:  International Journal of Plant Breeding -    Netherlands.



    Francis Crick and James Watson discovered the structure of DNA.  Arguably, the most important biological discovery of the 20th century.



    Liberty Hyde Bailey  (1858-1954).  American horticulturist, leader and writer.
    David Fairchild (1869-1954).   American botanist.



    Botanical Exploration of the Trans-Mississippi West, 1790-1850.   S. D. McKelvey.    
    Gardens for People.
    Thomas Church.
    How to Have a Green Thumb Without An Aching Back.   Ruth Stout.   Mulching.
    J. Irwin Miller garden, Columbus, Indiana, designed by Dan Kiley
    Old Shrub Roses.    Graham Stuart Thomas (1909-)  English plantsman, garden designer, writer.
    Pioneers in Gardening.     Miles Hadfield. 
    Rural Development Program in the U.S..



    The Earth is My Canvas.  Percy S. Cane.
    Men and Gardens
.   Nan Fairbrother (1913-)
    We Made a Garden.    Margery Fish. 



    Louise Driscoll (1875-1957)



Art - Quotes for Gardeners




    Garden Design.    Sylvia Crowe (1901-).    British garden designer and landscape architect. 
    The main seed bank of the United States, the National Seed Storage Laboratory, in Ft. Collins, Colorado, was established along with 19 other seed banks around the country.  Ft. Collins stores over 250,000 seed samples.



    Mountain Gloom and Mountain Glory: The Development of the Aesthetics of the Infinite.    Marjorie Hope Nicolson.

    Beatrix Jones Farrand (1872-1959).   American garden designer and landscape gardener.
    Martha Brookes Hutcheson (1871-1959).  American landscape designer and author. 
    The Gardener's World.    Joseph Wood Krutch.  



    The History of British Gardening.    Miles Hadfield.   1960



    Crop Science -     Published by the Crop Science Society of America, Wisconsin. 



    William Beebe (1877-1962).    American naturalist and explorer
    Rosalie Edge (1877-1962)   American conservationist and activist.
    Education of a Gardener.    Russell Page.
    Victoria Mary (Vita) Sackville-West (1892-1962).   English writer and garden designer.  She and her husband developed gardens at the Sissinghurst Castle in Kent, England. 
    Silent Spring.    By Rachel Carson.   The negative effects of agricultural chemicals.  
    Stalking the Wild Asparagus.   Euell Gibbons.




Simplicity - Quotes for Gardeners




    Annual Review of Phytopathology-      Palo Alto, California. 
    Garden Shrubs and their Histories.     Alice M. Coats.



    Donald Culross Peattie  (1898-1964).   American botanist and writer
    Rachel Carson (1907-1964)  American environmental advocate and author.
    The U. S. Surgeon General issued a report connecting smoking with lung cancer, emphysema, and heart disease.




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    Clematis.    Christoper Lloyd (1921-).    He also writes a column in Country Life (1963-)
            Mr. Lloyd gardens in Great Dixter, Sussex. 
    Albert Schweitzer (1875-1965).    French clergyman, physician, philosopher and scholar. 



    Early American Gardens.    Ann Leighton.
    The Garden; an Illustrated History.    Julia S. Berrall. 
    Science and Survival.    Barry Commoner.
    The Strawberry:  History, Breeding, and Physiology.     G. M. Darrow.


    The Creative Art of Garden Design.   Percy S. Cane. 
    Environmental Defense Fund founded in Long Island, NY. 
    Wilderness and the American Mind.
    Roderick Nash. 



Religion - Quotes for Gardeners




    America's Garden Heritage:  Explorers, Plantsmen and Gardens of Yesterday.   Editor: Dorothy S. Manks.
    Henry Beston (1888-1968).   American nature writer.
    The Golden Age of Plant Hunters.   K. Lemmon.
    Modern Private Gardens.   Edited by Geoffrey Jellicoe.
    The Sunday Times Gardening Book.   By Lanning Roper.  
    Weed Science -     Biomonthly journal from Oxford. 
    Whole Earth Catalog.     By Howard Rheingold.



Green Way Blog by Michael P. Garofalo




    The Landscape We See.    Garrett Eckbo.  
    Margery Fish (1892-1969).  English garden writer, and garden designer of East Lambrook Manor, Somerset.
    Room Outside.    John Brookes (1933-), English landscape designer. 
    A Short History of Botany in the United States.  L. Barber.



    Early American Gardens.   Ann Leighton.
    The first Earth Day celebrations and marches are organized. 
    Exotic Plant Manual.    Alfred Byrd Graf.  
    Flowers: The Story of Flowers, Plants and Gardens Through the Ages.   Peter Coats.
    Joseph Wood Krutch  (1893-1970)  American writer and critic, and after retirement in Arizona, naturalist.
    My Life, My Trees.   Richard St. Barbe Baker. 
    New directions in salad crops.
    Nobel Peace prize awarded to Norman Borlaug for his work in developing high yielding strains of wheat and rice.
         He is considered to be the "Father of the Green Revolution."
    The Plant Hunters.  A. M. Coats.
    The Story of the Royal Horticultural Society 1804-1968.    Harold R. Fletcher. 
    The Well Tempered Garden.   Christoper Lloyd.  

     How did the stunning color photography and printing in some top gardening magazines of this time
change our ideas or desires for gardening at home?



    Cacti and Their Cultivation.     Margaret Martin, P.R. Chapman, and H.A. Auger.
    The Compleat Naturalist: A Life of Linnaeus.  W. Blunt
    History of Gardens and Gardening.     Edward Hyams. 
    Maine Organic Farmers and Gardeners Association is formed.
    Fletcher Steele (1885-1971).   American garden designer. 



    Environmental Entomology -     Published by the Entomological Society of America, Maryland. 
    The Foxfire Book #1.    Edited by Eliot Wigginton.  Foxfire #10 came out in 1988.
    DDT (dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane) usage banned in the United States by the EPA. 
    Garden History  (Journal of the Garden History Society) -
    String trimmers available to consumers.
    Paul Berg, molecular biologist, develops techniques for transferring one strand of DNA to another.



    Foliage Plants.    Christopher Lloyd.  
    Small is Beautiful.   E. F. Schumacher.
   The White House Gardens:  A History and Pictorial Record.    Patricia Nixon, Frederick L. Kramer, Mrs. Paul Mellon,          Lloyd Goodrich, and Harold Sterner.  
    The California Certifiied Organic Gardeners is organized by 50 farmers.  



    Early Nurserymen, with Reprints of Documents and Lists.     John Harvey.
    Heritage Roses Group founded.
    How to Grow More Vegetables Than You Ever Thought Possible on Less Land Than You Can Imagine.   John             Jevons.   Based on Alan Chadwichk's methods.  
    Pilgrim at Tinker Creek.   Anne Dillard (1945-)
    Victory Garden on PBS television begins.   Hosted by James Crockett. 



    Journal of the Royal Horticultural Society  (1866-1975) renamed:  The Garden -
    British Botanical and Horticultural Literature before 1800. 
B. Henrey.
    Crops and Man.  J. R. Harlan.
    The Landscape of Man.   
Geoffrey Alan Jellicoe and Susan Pares.
    The Postage Stamp Garden.   Duane Newcomb.    Chadwick's method. 
    Seed Savers Exchange in Iowa organized by Kent Whealy. 
    Permaculture ideas from David Holmgreen and Bill Mollison.



Gardening and Farming Cliches



    American Gardens in the Eighteenth Century.     By Ann Leighton.
    Percy Stephen Cane (1881-1976).  English garden writer, garden magazine publisher, and garden designer. 
    Cooking with Flowers.   Jenny Leggatt. 
    Country Garden.    Penelope Hobhouse (1929-)   Information on Ms. Hobhouse.
    McMahon's American Gardener.    By Bernard McMahon.  Reprinted from the 11th edition of 1857. 
    Pacific Horticulture Magazine -     Begins publication.
    Perennial Garden Plants. 
Graham S. Thomas.



    Katherine S. White (1892-1977).   American garden writer.
    A Species of Eternity.  J. Kastner.



    Thomas Church (1902-1978).   California garden designer of small private gardens. 
    Bertram Clough Williams-Ellis (1883-1978).   English garden designer. 
    The Growth of Gardens.  Richard Gorer. 
    Grain problems and issues in the U.S. managed by President Carter. 




Quotes for Gardeners

Quotes, Sayings, Proverbs, Poetry, Maxims, Quips, Cliches, Adages, Wisdom
A Collection Growing to Over 2,700 Quotes Arranged by Over 130 Topics
Many of the Documents Include Recommended Readings and Internet Links.
Compiled by Michael P. Garofalo




    The History of Gardens.    Christopher Thacker.
    Onward and Upward in the Garden.    Katherine S. White.
    International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements is founded.



    Edwin Way Teale (1899-1980).    American nature writer.
    Art of the Plant World.   M. Rix.
    Alan Chadwick (1909-1980)  American advocate of organic gardening.
    The Englishwoman's Garden.    Alvilde Lees-Milne and Rosemary Verey.
    First U.S. patent issued for a genetically engineered bacterial organism.
    The Golden Age of Plant Hunters.  L. Barber
    Plant Disease -     American Phytopathological Society.
    The Readers Digest Complete Library of the Garden.  



    Brenda Colvin (1897-1981).   British landscape architect and garden designer.
    Earthly Pleasures:  Tales from a Biologist's Garden.    Roger Swain.
    The Essential Earthman
.   Henry Mitchell
    History of Botanical Science.  A. G. Morton.
    Journal of Garden History -
    Medieval Gardens.    John H. Harvey.
    Bill Mollison teaches about permaculture. 
    Amos Pettingill (1900-1981).    American nurseryman.
    Rodale Institute begins Farming System Trail to compare success rates of organic and chemical farming techniques.
    The Scented Garden.    Rosemary Isabel Verey (1918-).   English gardener designer and writer. 



    Richard St. Barbe Baker  (1889-1982).  A forester who help organize reforestation projects around the world.  He wrote over 30 books.  Leader of the the organization:  Men of the Trees.   Billions of trees have been planted as a result of reforestation projects he encouraged, inspired or led.    The International Tree Foundation:  Men of the Trees.

    Garden Design Journal (American Society of Landscape Architects) -

   One American farmer could produce enough to sustain 78 people. 



    Green Thoughts.   Eleanor Perenyi (1918-)
    E. L. Greene.  Landmarks of Botanical History.   Edited by F. N. Egerton. Stanford.  2 Volumes.
    Lanning Roper (1912-1983).   American garden designer.    Columnist for The Sunday Times and Country Life.
    Nobel prize given to Barbara McClintock for her work with the complex color patterns and genetics of Indian corn.
    The Gardens of China:  History, Art and Meanings. 
Edwin T. Morris.



    Classic Garden Design.   Rosemary Verey.
    Green Politics: The Global Promise
.    Fritjof Capra and Charlene Spretnak



    Color Your Garden.   Penelope Hobhouse
    Deep Ecology.   Bill Devall and George Sessions.
    Dictionary of Plant Names.    Allen J. Coombs.
    Journal of Bacteriology -   American Society for Microbiology.
    Elizabeth Lawrence (1910-1985).   American garden writer.
    Ann Leighton (1902-1985).   American garden historian and writer.
    Russell Page  (1906-1985).   English garden designer.
    Southern Garden History Society founded.



    The Companion to Roses.     John Fisher.
    Man in the Mangroves.
    The National Trust:  A Book of Gardening.    Penelope Hobhouse. 



    American Gardens in the Nineteenth Century: For Comfort and Affluence.    Ann Leighton.



    The Allotment: Its Landscape and Culture.   David Crouch and Colin Ward.   
    The Garden in Winter.    Rosemary Verey.
    Garden Style.
    Penelope Hobhouse. 
    Lanning Roper and His Gardens.    Jane Brown.
    Loudon and the Landscape: From Country Seat to Metropolis 1783 - 1843.   Melanie Louise Simo.



    Encyclopedia of Garden Plants.   The American Horticultural Society.
   The Figure in the Landscape:  Poetry, Painting and Gardens during the Eighteenth Century.  John Dixon Hunt.
   Remaking Society: Pathways to a Green Future.    Murray Bookchin
    Edward Abbey (1927-1989)   American writer, conservationist, activist.



    The Art of Botanical Illustration.   M. Rix.    
    Bold Romantic Gardens. 
Wolfgang Oehme (1930-) and James Van Sweden (1935-).
        Creators of the "New American Garden style."
    Botany for Gardeners
.    Brian Capon.  
    A Brighter Garden.    Poems by Emily Dickinson, edited by Karen Ackerman, and illustrated by Tasha Tudor.
    The Canadian Garden.    Marjorie Harris
    The Complete Book of Bonsai.    Harry Tomlinson. 
    Ecotopia.   Ernest Callenbach.
    Good Planting.   Rosemary Verey.
    Lost Gardens of Heligan.  Tim Smit. 
    A Natural History of the Senses.   Diane Ackerman (1948-)
    Organic Foods Production Act passed - setting standards for "organically grown" foods. 
    The Pacific Horticulture Book of Western Gardening.     Edited by George Waters and Nora Harlow.
    A Reunion of Trees.  S. A. Spongberg.



Basic Facts About Agriculture in the United States

          1900         1930         1960         1990
Total Population     76,000,000     122,775,000     180,000,000     246,081,000
Farm Population     29,400,000       30,455,000       15,600,000         4,591,000
Farmers Percent of Labor Force     38%     21%      8.3%     2.6%
Number of Farms     5,740,000     6,295,000      3,711,000         2,143,000
Irrigated Farm Acres       14,633,000      33,800,000       46,386,000   
Average Acerage of U.S. Farm     147     157      303     461

USDA.   History of American Agriculture, 1776-2000




    John Codrington (1899-1991).    British garden designer.
    Green Prints: "The Weeder's Digest" Magazine-      Quarterly magazine edited by Pat Stone.
    The History of Garden Design.   Monique Mosset and George Teyssot.
    Second Nature:  A Gardener's Education.    Michael Pollan.



    The Botanizers: Amateur Scientists in Nineteenth Century America.  E.B. Keeney
    French Dirt:  The Story of a Garden in the South of France.
   Richard Goodman.
    The Gardener's Eye and Other Essays.   Allen Lacey (1936-)
    Gentle Conquest. The Botanical Discovery of North America.  J. L. Reveal.
    Ornamental Shrubs, Climbers and Bamboos.    Graham S. Thomas.
    Plants in Garden History.    Penelope Hobhouse.
    Right Plant, Right Place.     Nicola Ferguson.




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    Encyclopedia of Gardening.   By the American Horticultural Society.  Chief Editor:  Christopher Brickell.
    The Gardener's Essential Gertrude Jekyll.    Gertrude Jekyll.
    The Garden Makers:  The Great Tradition of Garden Design from 1600 to the Present Day.   George Plumptre.
    Greenhouse Gardener's Companion.      By Shane Smith.  Revised Edition in 2000.
    Henry Mitchell  (1923-1993).   American garden writer.



    Groundwork:  A Gardener's Ecology.      Roger Swain.
    Northern Farm: A Glorious Year on a Small Maine Farm.    Henry Beston.   Reprint.
    One Hundred and One Botanists.  D. Isley.
    First transgenetic food approved for sale in the U.S. - the Flavr Savr tomato. 
    Seeds of Change.   Kenny Ausubel.



    California Garden and Landscape History Society founded.
    Deep in the Green: An Exploration of Country Pleasures.     Anne Raver.
    In the Garden:  Thoughts on Changing Seasons.     Marjorie Harris
    Landscape and Memory.    Simon Schama. 
    The Literature of Crop Science.    Edited by Wallace C. Olsen.
    The Millennium Whole Earth Catalog.    Howard Rheingold.
    Native Gardens for Dry Climates.    Sally Wasowski and Andy Wasowski.  
    Sunset Western Garden Book.   Sunset Magazine.  40th Anniversary Edition
    The Victory Garden.   James W. Masters, Jim Wilson, Bob Thomson, and Thomas Wirth.



Pulling Onions: Maxims and Quips




    America's Botanical Beauty: Illustrations from the Library of Congress.    By James L. Reveal.
    Federal Agricultural Improvement and Reform Act in the U.S..
    The Forgotten Pollinators.     Stephen L. Buchmann and Gary Paul Nabhan.
    The Harmonious Garden.   Catherine Ziegler
    Kitchen Gardening Magazine.   1996-.   Taunton Press.
    My Vegetable Love: A Journal of a Growing Seasson.     Carl H. Klaus.
    Pomona's Harvest: An Illustrated Chronicle of Antiquarian Fruit Literature.  H. Frederick Janson.



    Gardening by Mail: A Source Book.   Barbara J. Barton and Ginny Hunt (5th Edition 1997)
    The Virtual Garden offers an on-line version of Gardening by Mail. 
    Gardening Through the Ages.   Penelope Hobhouse.
    Monsanto develops a genetically altered potato with a BT gene that kills some insects.
   Passport to Gardening: A Sourcebook for the 21st-Century Gardener.   Katherine LaLiberté and Ben Watson.
    Weathering Winter:  A Gardener's Daybook.      Carl H. Klaus. 



    The Inviting Garden.   Allen Lacey.
    Manual of Woody Landscape Plants: Their Identification, Ornamental Characteristics, Culture, Propagation and          Uses.   Michael Dirr.    5th Edition. 
    Plants for Dry Climates.  Mary Rose Duffield and Warren D. Jones, 3rd Edition
    Botany Online  International Edition in German and English, Hypertext



Cotton: Origin, History, Technology, and Production.  Edited by C. Wayne Smith and J. Tom Cothren.



David Brower (1912-2000)   Environmentalist, conservationist, and Sierra Club Executive Director
Nearly 50 % of the world's labor force is employed in agriculture.






The History of Gardening Timeline

Noteworthy Gardens, Events, Persons, Publications and Facts in the History of Gardening
Includes Related Information about Agriculture, Farming, Culinary Arts, Botany, Horticulture, Technology, Arts and Crafts

Compiled by Michael P. Garofalo

From Ancient Times to 1600

The Seventeenth Century:  1600 - 1699

The Eighteenth Century:  1701 - 1799

The Nineteenth Century: 1800 - 1899

The Twentieth Century:  1900 - 1999

Reference Sources and Selected Links






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More Quotes




Spirituality and Concerns of the Soul


Weeds and Weeding

Simplicity and the Simple Life

Pulling Onions
Quips, Maxims and Observations by Michael P. Garofalo

The Essence of Gardening

Working in the Garden

Garden Digest Links


Haiku and Zen Poetry  -  Links and References

Cliches for Gardeners and Farmers

The History of Gardening Timeline
From Ancient Times to the 20th Century

Short Poems by Mike Garofalo

Seeing and Vision

Beauty in the Garden

Seasons and Time

Comments about this Web Site

Jokes, Riddles and Humor


The Spirit of Gardening



Quotes for Gardeners

Quotes, Sayings, Proverbs, Poetry, Maxims, Quips, Cliches, Adages, Wisdom
A Collection Growing to Over 2,700 Quotes, Arranged by 130 Topics
Many of the Documents Include Recommended Readings and Internet Links.
Compiled by Michael P. Garofalo





Copyrighted 1999 - 2003 by Michael P. Garofalo.  All rights reserved.


I Welcome Your Comments, Ideas, Contributions, and Suggestions
E-mail Mike Garofalo in Red Bluff, California


A Short Biography of Michael P. Garofalo


Gardening History Timeline: 20th Century
81K, Version 4.3.   March 19, 2003.
This document was first distributed on the Internet on January 1, 1999.

The Spirit of Gardening

Quotes for Gardeners

Haiku and Zen Poetry


Index to the History of Gardening Timeline