The History of Gardening: A Timeline
The Nineteenth Century:  1800 - 1899


Noteworthy Gardens, Events, Persons, Publications, and Facts in the History of Gardening
References and Web Links Organized by Time Periods
Some Information about Agriculture, Farming, Culinary Arts, Botany, Horticulture, Technology, Arts and Crafts

Compiled by Michael P. Garofalo

March 19, 2003


From Ancient Times to 1600

The Seventeenth Century:  1600 - 1699

The Eighteenth Century:  1701 - 1799

The Nineteenth Century: 1800 - 1899

The Twentieth Century:  1900 - 1999

Reference Sources and Selected Links


Reminder: You can search the Gardening Timeline and the Spirit of Gardening website.

Search Tips and Advanced Atomz Searching Techniques for Searching the Spirit of Gardening Website





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The History of Gardening Timeline
The Nineteenth Century




    "In 1800, approximately 75% of the population [America]  were directly engaged in agricultural production.  By 1850, it was less than 60% and by 1900, less than 40% were engaged in agricultural production."   Modern Agriculture.



    John Chapman, Johnny Appleseed, begins planting apple trees in the Ohio Valley.



    Erasmus Darwin (1731-1802).   English physician and natural scientist. 
    Alexander von Humboldt shows the merits of South American bird guano for plants.
    Natural Theology.   William Paley.


    The German pharmacist, Friedrich Saturner, names morphine after the Greek god of dreams, Morpheus.
    Empress Josephine Bonaparte's rose garden is shown in prints by Pierre-Joseph Redoute.



    Royal Horticultural Society in England is established.

    Joseph Priestly (1733 - 1804).   Studied gases released by plants.



    Description Botanique du Chiranthodendron.   José Dionisio Larreátegui.  Full-text online.
    The gardens of Empress Josephine Bonaparte's gardens at Malmaison in France have over 2,000 species of plants.  Her              head gardener was Aime Bonpland. 



    The American Gardener's Calendar.    Bernard McMahon. 
    An Inquiry into the Changes of Taste in Landscape Gardening.     Humphry Repton. 





    Botanical Gardens in Rio De Janeiro, Brazil, (Kew Garden Associate) established. 




Reviews and Awards





    Every Man His Own Gardener.   Thomas Mawe and John Abercrombie.   19th Edition, 1st Ed. 1769. 
    Jean Babtiste Lamark's theories about evolution are published.



    Three Essays on the Picturesque.   Uvedal Price. 
    In England, Peter Durand, invents the tin can for preserving foods.







Flowers  -  Quotes for Gardeners




    Hector St. John de Crevecoeur (1735-1813).  French writer and farmer







    The Florist's Manual.    Maria Jackson.





    Humphry Repton (1752-1818).   English garden designer.  
    Thomas Nuttall.  Genera of North American Plants.
    Pioneer farm life in the Ozarks.






    Les Jardins.   Poem by Abbe De Lille.
    Joseph Banks (1743-1820)  Plant collector, botanist, explorer of Australia, President of the Royal Horticultural Society for 40 years, wealthy landowner.   Brought 3,500 different species of plants to the Kew RBG. 
    Myths about tomatoes being harmful to humans are repudiated by agricultural experts.



    The American Gardener.    William Cobett.   Nurseryman and plant collector.  



    The Encyclopedia of Gardening.    John C. Loudon.



      In France, Louis Bernard Rabaut invented an expresso coffee machine.





    Impact of the Industrial Revolution on Agriculture.



    Gardener's Magazine (1826-1843)      Published by John C. Loudon.
    Thomas Jefferson (1783-1826).   American President, writer, farmer (Monticello), and plantsman.
    Visit his Monticello home and gardens.  What was a day with Jefferson like at Monticello.  On-line Resources.
    Robert Stein invents and patents methods of distillation for production of liquors, spirits, and liqueurs. 
    Apple orchards in Canada.



    The English Gardener.    William Cobbett.  
    A History of English Gardening.    George Johnson. 
    Machines to break up bones for fertilizer are invented.
    St. James Metropolitan Cemetery in Liverpool, England.    Start of garden cemetery movement.
    Terrarium horticulture developed by Nathaniel B. Ward (1791-1868) - the Wardian case. 
    Jean Baptiste Pierre Antoine de Monet, Chevalier de Lamarck (1744-1829)



    Rural Rides.    William Cobbett. 
    John Deere develops and produces the first steel plowshare.
    The lawn mower invented in England by Edwin Beard butting.



    Maplelawn Gardens, Ontario, B.C.
    Charles Darwin begins a scientific expedition on the ship Beagle. 



    Every Lady Her Own Flower Garden.   Louisa Johnson.
William Hooker (1779-1832)Botanical illustrator and artist.  Botanical art supplies.
    Practical Hints for Landscape Gardeners.
   William Sawrey Gilpin (1762-1843). 
    Georges Cuvier (1769-1832).

    Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (1749-1832).     Penetrating Goethe.



    Jewish kosher food in the U.S..



    David Douglas (1799-1834).   English plant collector - collected in western America. 



    William Cobbett (1763-1835)



Seeing - Quotes for Gardeners








    The Rose Fancier's Manual.    Catherine Gore.
    The Suburban Gardener and Villa Companion.    By John C. Loudon. 
    The Trees and Shrubs of Britain, Native and Foreign (Arboretum Et Fruticetum Britannicum). 
        By John C. Loudon.  8 Volumes. 



    The Voyage of the Beagle.    Charles Darwin.



I Welcome Your Comments and Suggestions




    Gardening for Ladies.    Jane Loudon. 
    The Derby Arboretum, a Public Park, designed by John Loudon.
    The English import bat guano fertilizer from South America.
    Kew National Botanical Gardens transferred from Crow to British government.   William J. Hooker appointed director of          Kew NBG.   250 acres.    Opened to public on weekends. 
    Soil chemistry research by the German chemist Julius von Liebig.   Minerals, humus, manure, and fertilizer are essential to          plant growth.  Law of the minimum formulated.



    Gardener's Chronicle -     Published by Joseph Paxton.
    The Ladies Companion to the Flower Garden.    Mane Loudon.
   Landscape Gardening:  A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening.  Andrew J. Downing.
    Victoria Park, London, a public park, designed by James Pennethorne.
    Syracuse, New York, hosts the first state agricultural fair in America.
    Prodromus Systematis Naturalis Regni Vegetabilis (1824-1873).  Augustin de Candolle (1775-1841) worked on the
    Prodromus from 1816 until his death in 1841, then his son, Alphonse (1806-1893).
    Irish potato famine begins.




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    Cottage Residences.    Andrew J. Downing.  
    John B. Lawes opens Deptford factory in England making fertilizer from bones and sulfuric acid. 
    The Southern Farmer and Market-Gardener.      Francis S. Holmes. 



    John Claudius Loudon (1783-1843).   English gardener and writer. 
    Birkenhead Park, Wirral, Merseyside, a people's park, designed by Joseph Paxton.
    The Rothamsted Experimental Station, England, developed by Sir John Lawes and Sir Henry Gilbert. 
Rothamsted is the oldest agricultural experiment station in the world.



    Jane Loudon's flower paintings. 
    Etienne Geoffroy Saint-Hillaire (1772-1844)



    The Fruits and Fruit Trees of America.    Andrew J. Downing and Charles Downing. 
    The Horticulturist -    A magazine published by Andrew J. Downing.
    A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Gardening Adapted to North America.   Andrew J. Downing.
    John Chapman, Johnny Applseed  (1774-1845)



    Queen's park, Manchester England, designed by Joshua Major. 
    Hemp production in the U.S.




    The Flowers Personified.   JJ Grandville.      




    The Cottage Gardens of American.    Walter Elder. 



    A Practical Treatise on the Management of Fruit Trees.      George Jacques.
    Patents issued on chemical fertilizers: guano and sulfate of ammonia.
    Mixed chemical fertilizers sold commercially in the U.S..  



    How to Lay Out a Small Garden.    Joseph Paxton. 
   Cultivating Canadian Gardens: A History of Gardening In Canada.    Presented by the National Library of Canada.               Interesting facts about Huron agriculture, Canadian flora, pioneer gardens, and 19th Century seed catalogs.  Includes a bibliography, links, and photographs. 
    The growth of railroad systems around the world from 1850-1890 greatly expanded the marketing options for agriculture.



Reminder: You can search the Spirit of Gardening website.

Search Tips and Advanced Atomz Searching Techniques for Searching the Spirit of Gardening Website





    The Crystal Palace in Hyde Park constructed.   Designed by Joseph Paxton.
    John James Audubon  (1785-1851)   American ornithologist and painter. 
    Joseph Hooker brings 6,5000 species of plants from India to Kew NBG.  



    Andrew Jackson Downing (1815-1852).    American landscape architect and horticulturist.   Editor of The Horticulturist         from 1845.

    Chorlton's Grape Growers Guide.     William Chorlton. 
    Tea plants sent from China to Indian Himalayas by Robert Fortune.  
   Walks and Talks of an American Farmer in England.    Federick L. Olmsted. 



Green Way Blog by Michael P. Garofalo




    Ephraim Wales Bull develops first stock of Concord grapes.
    The Farmer's Guide to Scientific and Practical Agriculture.   Henry Stephens.   Full-text online.
    Robert Veitch's nurseries in Chelsea and Exeter are very successful.  



    Walden.    By Henry David Thoreau.
    The American Gardener.   William Cobbett.  Full-text online.



    The Old Homestead.    Anna S. Stephens.    Cities negative influence on rural areas. 


    J. T. Way discovers that nitrates are formed in soils by fertilizers containing ammonia.
    Gail Borden patents and produces condensed milk.



    Handbook of Fruit Culture.     Thomas Gregg. 
    Louis Pasteur (1822-1895) announces theory that bacteria and germs cause infectious diseases.
    Wirt, Elizabeth Washington Wirt  (1784-1857)   Flora's Dictionary.



    Jane Loudon (1807-1858).   Writer, artist, gardener; wife and collaborator with John Loudon. 
    Central Park in New York City is designed by Frederick Law Olmstead and Calvert Vaux.



    On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection.     Charles Darwin.
    Plain and Pleasant Talk about Fruits, Flowers and Farming.    Henry Ward Beecher.  Full-text online.
    Western Fruit Book.     F. R. Elliott.    4th Edition. 
    The bedding system is very popular: geometrical flower beds with colorful annuals, e.g., 40,000 bedding plants
            were set out in Hyde Park, London, in 1859.
    Red House, Kent, England designed by Philip Webb (1831-1915) and commissioned by William Morris was the first Arts              and Crafts house and garden.



    E. W. Hilgard's studies in ecology and soils.
    The Wheat Plant.     John H. Klippart.
    Cree Nation farming.



    Cinchona trees (for quinine) sent from Kew NBG to India. 



    Henry David Thoreau  (1817-1862)  American naturalist and essayist.
    United States Department of Agriculture established.  Called the "People's Department" by President Lincoln.
    Homestead Act and Morrill Land Grand College Act signed by President Lincoln.
    Wild Apples by H. D. Thoreau.



    Evidence on Man's Place in Nature.    Thomas H. Huxley.   Huxley's aphorisms (353K) 
    Pear Culture Manual.    Gordon F. Ferris.  
    Scale insects destroy 2.5 million acres of French vines.  





    Joseph Paxton (1803-1865)  English architect, engineer, gardener, town planner. 
    Heirloom Vegetable Gardening:  A Master Gardener’s Guide to Planting, Seed Saving, and Cultural History.               William Woys Weaver. 
    William Jackson Hooker ( - 1865)  Botanist, Director of Kew NBG.
    Gregor Johann Mendel publishes findings about genetic experiments with pea plants.
    Dutch in Java start production of guinine from chinchona trees smuggled out of Bolivia. 



    The American Gardener's Assistant.   Thomas Bridgeman.  Full-text online.
    Country Life: A Handbook of Agriculture, Horticulture, & Landscape Gardening.   Robert Morris Copeland.
    Journal of the Royal Horticultural Society  (1866-1975) -
    Indian Corn:  Its Value, Culture and Uses.      Edward Enfield. 



    The Small Fruit Culturist.    Andrew S. Fuller.



    Suburbia, a planned community outside Chicago, designed by F. L. Olmsted.
    The Variation of Animals and Plants Under Domestication.      Charles Darwin.



    The American Woman's Home.   Harriet Beecher Stowe and Catherine Beecher.
    How Crops Grow.    Samuel W. Johnson.  
    Nature -    Weekly science journal published in London.   



Trees - Quotes for Gardeners




    Alpine Flowers for English Gardens.    William Robinson.
   The Art of Beautifying Suburban Home Grounds of Small Extent.     Frank Scott.
    Handbook of the Sulphur Cure.     William J. Flagg.
    The Wild Garden.    William Robinson. 



    The Descent of Man.    Charles Darwin.
    The Garden -.     Magazine published by William Robinson.
    My Summer in the Garden.    Charles Dudley Warner.



    Farm Gardening and Seed Growing.     F. Brill.
    Gardening By Myself.    Anna Bartlett Waner (1824-1915)
    The Model Potato.    By John McLaurin. 
    Cotton growing in South Carolina



    Joseph Breck (1794-1873)  American nurseryman    
    DDT invented by Othmar Zeidler.  Its insecticidal properties were not exploited until the 20th Century.
    Oregon Trail.     By Frances Parkman Jr..
    Invention and manufacture of barbed wire fencing.
    Justis Von Liebig (1803-1873).    Studied the chemistry of plant nutrition.
    John Torrey.   (1796-1873). American botanist and teacher.
    Jean Louis Rodolphe Agassiz (1807-1873)



The Four Seasons - Quotes for Gardeners







    Henry Wickham brings rubber tree seeds from Brazil to England, the plants later being sent to Sri Lanka.
    First state agricultural station established in Connecticut at Wesleyan University.



    The Effects of Cross and Self Fertilization in the Vegetable Kingdom.    Charles Darwin.
    Rubber seeds smuggled out of Brazil to Kew NBG. 
    M. D. Peter of Switzerland added dried milk to chocolate and produced "milk chocolate."
    A. Atlee Burpee starts a popular seed company in America. 



    Birds and Poets.    John Burroughs.  
    Grapes and Grape Vines of California.      Hannah Millard. 
    Royal Parks and Gardens of London.    Nathan Cole.
    Treatise and Handbook of Orange Culture in Florida.      T. W. Moore.



    Robert Koch's (1843-1910) work in the science of bacteriology is very influential. 



    Gardening Illustrated -     A magazine published by William Robinson.
    Typical diet of the Crimean Tatar.
    Silas McDowell (1795-1879).  Pomologist in Southern U.S..  Developed thermal belt concept.   Biography.



    The Power of Movement in Plants.     Charles Darwin and F. Darwin.
    Robert Fortune (1812-1880), a Scottish plant collector, introduced over 120 new plants to the West.





    Ralph Waldo Emerson  (1803-1882)  American poet, essayist, and philosopher.  Emerson 1     Emerson 2

    Charles Robert Darwin (1809-1882)  English naturalist, writer, and theorist.  After Darwin's adventures on the Beagle, he married, raised a large family, and lived in a more rural area outside London.   "From 1842 he lived at Down House, Downe, Kent, a country gentleman among his gardens, conservatories, pigeons, and fowls. The practical knowledge he gained there, especially in variation and interbreeding, proved invaluable. Private means enabled him to devote himself to science, in spite of continuous ill-health" - Biography.

 For more information on Charles Darwin:  The C. Warren Irvin, Jr., Collection of  Charles Darwin and Darwinian,   The Origin of the Species,   The Descent of Man,   The Voyage of the Beagle,   Photo,    Darwinian Books,    Links.




    The English Flower Garden.    William Robinson.
    Marianne North's flower and plant paintings are collected and reproduced.
    Truck Farming in the South.     A. Oemler. 
    Woven wire fencing manufactured.
    L'Origine des Plantes Cultivees.  By the Swiss botanist Alphonse de Candolle. 



    Amateur Gardening -      Magazine.    First editor:  James Shirley Hibberd.
    The nontoxic fungal treatment for grapes, Bordeaux, developed by Pierre Marie Alexis Millardet.
    British Apples.     A. F. Barron.
    The Garden:  Its Art and History.   Jacob von Falk.
    Handbook of Tree Planting.     Nathaniel H. Egleston. 
    Gregor Johann Mendel (1822-1884)  Austrian botanist who studied plant breeding and inheritance. 




    Fresh Fields.    John Burroughs.
    Gravetye Manor, West Hoathly, Sussex, purchased and gardens developed by William Robinson.
    The Marigold Garden.  By Kate Greenway.  Popular children's book. 
    The Origin of Cultivated Plants.     A. Candolle.
    Science -      American Association for the Advancement of Science.   Monthly journal. 



    Emily Dickinson (1830-1886)  American poet
    The Old Garden.    Margaret Deland (1857-1945)
    The Practical Fruit Grower.     Samuel T. Maynard. 
    Small Fruits.     William H. Hills.  



    Experiments in water filtration with sand at the Lawrence Experiment Station in Massachusetts.                
    The Life and Letters of Charles Darwin.   2 Volumes.   
    Medizinal Pflanzen.    Hermann A. Köhler.  Full-text online.





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    Brandywine tomato seed sold by Johnson and Stokes.
    Garden and Forest:  Journal of Horticulture, Landscape Art, and Forestry (1888-1897).
    Grape Culture and Wine Making in California.  George Husmann.
    The Olive:  Its Culture in Theory and Practice.   A. T. Marvin. 
    Asa Gray (1810-1888).   American botanist.



    Charter Gas Engine Company gasoline tractor is manufactured and sold with success.
    The Garden's Story.  George Ellwanger.




    James Shirley Hibberd  (1825-1890)  English garden writer
    How to Make the Garden Pay.     T. Greiner.
    The Raisin Industry.     Gustav Eisen.  
    S. Winogradski isolates bacteria responsible for the transformation of ammonia to nitrate.


    Adopting an Abandoned Farm.   Kate Sanborn (1839-1923).
    Garden-Craft Old and New.    John D. Sedding.
    Landscape Gardening.   Samuel Parsons Jr.
    New Onion Culture.     T. Greiner.




Quotes for Gardeners

Quotes, Sayings, Proverbs, Poetry, Maxims, Quips, Cliches, Adages, Wisdom
A Collection Growing to Over 2,700 Quotes Arranged by 130 Topics
Many of the Documents Include Recommended Readings and Internet Links.
Compiled by Michael P. Garofalo





    Autobiography, and Recollections of Incidents Connected with Horticultural Affairs, 1807-1892.    L. Menand.

    The Formal Garden in England.    By Reginald Blomfield (1856-1942), English landscape architect, and illustrated by Francis I. Thomas (1866-1950) English artist and garden designer. 
    A Text-Book of Agricultural Entomology.   Eleanor A. Ormerod. 



    Garden Craft Old and New.    J. D. Sedding. 
    Market Gardening and Farm Notes.     Burnet Landreth.
    World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago.   Featured many old style American gardens.



I Welcome Your Comments and Suggestions




    The Mountains of California.    John Muir.
    Iceberg lettuce introduced by W. Atlee Burpee & Co.
    Italian Gardens.    Charles A. Platt.
    Japanese Tea Garden in Golden Gate Park, San Francisco, is developed for Exposition. 
    Development of the Luther Burbank Russett potato.



    Thomas Henry Huxley (1824-1895).    English biologist, paleontologist, and popularizer of Darwinian theory.  
    Yi He Yuan, The Summer Palace Royal Gardens, Beijing, China.
    The Evolution of Horticulture in New England.  By Daniel Denison Slade.  



    The Bamboo Garden.    A. B. Freeman-Mitford. 
    Country of the Pointed Furs.    Sarah Orne Jewett (1849-1909)
    The Idea of a Garden.   Gertrude Jekyll. 
    William Morris (1834-1896)
    Vegetable Gardening.     Samuel B. Green.




The Meaning of Gardening




    Gardening in California.     W. S. Lyon. 
    USDA Secretary James "Tama Jim" Wilson from 1897-1912 during major expansion of USDA.



    The Apple.     Kansas State Horticultural Society. 
    Housewife in Colonial Days.    Alice Earle Morse. 
    Livingston's Celery Book.    
E. J. Hollister. 
    Sunset Magazine.
  Gardening, home arts, and travel in the Western United States.



    Wood and Garden.    By Gertrude Jekyll.  
    Howell Living History Farm, New Jersey




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The History of Gardening Timeline

Noteworthy Gardens, Events, Persons, Publications and Facts in the History of Gardening
Includes Related Information about Agriculture, Farming, Culinary Arts, Botany, Horticulture, Technology, Arts and Crafts

Compiled by Michael P. Garofalo

From Ancient Times to 1600

The Seventeenth Century:  1600 - 1699

The Eighteenth Century:  1701 - 1799

The Nineteenth Century: 1800 - 1899

The Twentieth Century:  1900 - 1999

Reference Sources and Selected Links






flow2.gif (27433 bytes)





More Quotes




Spirituality and Concerns of the Soul


Weeds and Weeding

Simplicity and the Simple Life

Pulling Onions
Quips, Maxims and Observations by Michael P. Garofalo

The Essence of Gardening

Working in the Garden

Garden Digest Links


Haiku and Zen Poetry  -  Links, References and Studies

Cliches for Gardeners and Farmers

The History of Gardening Timeline
From Ancient Times to the 20th Century

Short Poems by Mike Garofalo

Seeing and Vision

Beauty in the Garden

Seasons and Time

Comments about this Web Site

Jokes, Riddles and Humor


The Spirit of Gardening



Quotes for Gardeners

Quotes, Sayings, Proverbs, Poetry, Maxims, Quips, Cliches, Adages, Wisdom
A Collection Growing to Over 2,000 Quotes, Arranged by 105 Topics
Many of the Documents Include Recommended Readings and Internet Links.
Compiled by Michael P. Garofalo





Copyrighted 1999 - 2003 by Michael P. Garofalo.  
All rights reserved.


I Welcome Your Comments, Ideas, Contributions, and Suggestions
E-mail Mike Garofalo in Red Bluff, California



A Short Biography of Michael P. Garofalo



Gardening History Timeline: The Nineteenth Century. 
57K.   Version 4.3.    March 19, 2003.  
This document was first distributed on the Internet on January 1, 1999.


The Spirit of Gardening

Haiku and Zen Poetry

Quotes for Gardeners

Index to the History of Gardening Timeline