Concrete Poems
Visual Poetry
Text Art
Interactive and Hypertext Poetry
Shape Poems

Graphic Arts and Poetry


Title Index to Websites, Books, Journals, Articles, and Poems

Michael P. Garofalo

December 27, 2005


A    D    F    H    J    L    N    P    R    T    W    Z











Abshurtling Cough:  A Cyberzine for Visual Poetry     

Alphabets to Order     By Alastair Johnston.   Oak Knoll Press, The British Library,
2000.   Review    

Alt-X Online Network

Anthology of Concretism.  
Edited by Eugene Wildman.   2nd. edition.  Chicago : Swallow 
Press, Inc., 1969.

The Altered Page   

Animisms    Jim Andrews

April Poems

American Haibun and Haiga     Edited by Jim Kacian and Bruce Ross.   

An Anthology of Concrete Poetry.    Edited by Emmett Williams.    New York,
Something Else Press, 1967.   

Anthology of Concretism.   Edited by Eugene Wildman.   Chicago, Swallow Press, 1969.


Archae Editions.    By Richard Kostelanetz.   

Art and People     Clemente Padin

Art and Poetry of Holly Crawford

Art Crimes: The Writing on the Wall    Images, information, resources, links, interviews.

Art Center of Visual Poetry    By J.  Santos.   

Art Crimes:  The Writing on the Wall     

Arte Postal, Arte Correo, Arte Postale, Mail Art, Correspondence Art

Art History: Movements - DMOZ Links

Arth: The Gate     Visual-Video poetry.   By David Mimran.     

The-Artists.Org    Major 20th century and contemporary visual artists.

ArtLex's Con Page    

Art Electronics and Other Writings    Archives / Videotheque / Rome.  
By Caterina Davinio.   

The Art of Kazmier Maslanka

Arts - Graphic Design - DMOZ Links

ASCII Art and More     Marc Schmitz

ASCII Art Gallery      A comprehensive and well organized website, presented by the noteworthy
artist Joan G. Stark.

ASCII Art - Links    

ASCII-art newsgroups:     alt.ascii-art      alt.ascii-art.animation

ASCII Art Webring    Moderated by Jonathon R. Oglesbee

Assembling.  Compiled by Richard Kostelanetz and Henry Korn.   1st Assemblying,
Brilbmessa, Inc., 1970.  2nd.  3rd.  4th, Assemblying Press, 1973.  A collaborative 
anthology of the unpublished and unpublishable - selected and printed by the

Assemblage: The Women's New Media Gallery    Edited by Carolyn Quertin.

Australian Visual Poets

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Vittore Baroni      Interview   Links     

Basinski, Michael    Links    

Before Ascii_Art Mail List

Charles Bernstein

Bibliography - Concrete and Visual Poetry

Big Bang Faerie   The e-theatre of Big Bang Art Inner Mouvement.   Magic Lights by Sophie Charrier.
Scriptural Phantasmagorias by Joëlle Dautricourt.  Text in French and English.  

Simon Biggs   

Blog   A Concrete-Visual Poetry Weblog by Michael P. Garofalo


A Book of the Book: Some Works and Projections about the Book and Writing.  
Edited by Jerome Rothenberg and Steven Clay.   New York, Granary Books, 2000.
Chapter 2


The Birdhouse

Blog with Water Color and Pen      Jerry Dreesen

A Brief History of Postal Art
     Mark Block    

British Electronic Poetry Center    A joint venture by Southampton University, Birkbeck and 
Royal Holloway Colleges, London University.

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John Cage 

Calligrammes: Poems of Peace and War (1913-1916)
By Guillaume Apollinaire.  Berkeley, University of California Press, 1980.
Translated by Ann Hyde Greet.

Calligraphy - Links

Augusto de Campos      

The Chicago Review Anthology of Concretism.   By Eugene Wildman.   Chicago, Swallow Press, 1967.

Click Poetry:  Words in Space
    By David Knoebel.   Complex animated word art with sounds.  

Coach House Books   

Bob Cobbing (1920 - 2002)    By Keith Armstrong.

Collage Artists - DMOZ Links

College Town:  Gallery of Collage and Photomontage

The Color of Three       By Carol Stetser.  6K.   

Computer Haiga    By Angelee Deodhar     

Computer Software - Graphic Arts - Links

Concerning Concrete Poetry.   London, Writers Forum, 1978.









The Hub of the Wheel.   A concrete poem by Michael P. Garofalo.










Concrete and Visual Poetry, Calligrams:  Texts, Artwork, Criticism, Theory, 
Commentary.   Is it a Book?   By Emily Jane Dawson.  

Concrete and Visual Poetry Links
.   Omniseek.   

The Concrete Historical     Roland Greene  37K

Concrete Poems

Concrete Poems by Michael P. Garofalo   

[Just as concrete is poured into a frame and then properly dried and cured to take some shape; 
concrete poems are letters and words poured into the frame of the poem to make some
image-shape appear that visually amplifies the meaning and interpretations.]

Concrete Poetry    Author unknown.   Three chapters and a bibliography.  50K+

Concrete Poetry: An Annotated International Bibliography    With an Index of
Poets and Poems.   By Kathleen McCullough.   Troy, New York, Whitston Pub., 1989.    

Concrete Poetry and Other Postmodernist Styles.    57K        

Concrete Poetry: An International Anthology.    Compiled by Stephen Bann. 
London, London Magazine, 1967.

Concrete Poetry: A World View    Willis Barnstone.   Indiana University Press, 1953.

Concrete Poetry: A World View      An essay by Mary Ellen Solt.    120K+     On-line

Concrete Poetry: A World View     Edited by Mary Ellen Solt.   Bloomington: Indiana 
University  Press, 1968, 1980.    22 Chapers on-line!!  

Concrete Poetry      Encyclopedia Britannica online article. 

Concrete Poetry from East and West Germany; The Language of Exemplarism and 
   By Liselotte Gumpel.   New Haven, Yale University Press, 1976.

Concrete Poetry - History   5K+     References and Notes.   9K+.

Concrete Poetry in France.   By David Seaman.   Michigan, Ann Arbor, University 
of Michigan, 1981.

Concrete Poetry, Journal of Typographic Research.    By M. Weaver.   1966, pp. 293-326.

Concrete Poetry - Kalliope Online Poetry Workshop

Concrete Poetry Lesson Plan    3rd Grade.  By Mrs. Ackerman.  

Concrete Poetry:  Links, References and Some Poems    By Michael P. Garofalo.   140K+


Concrete Poetry: Tension of Things-Words in Space-Time (A Manifesto 1956)

"Against perspectivistic syntactic organization where words sit like "corpses at a banquet," concrete 
poetry offers a new sense of structure, capable of capturing without loss or regression the 
contemporaneous essence of poeticizable experience.

The poetic nucleus is no longer placed in evidence by the successive and linear chaining of verses, 
but by a system of relationships and equilibriums between all parts of the poem.

Graphic-phonetic functions-relations ("factors of proximity and likeness") and the substantive use of 
space as an element of composition maintain a simultaneous dialectic of eye and voice, which, allied 
with the ideogrammic synthesis of meaning, creates a sentient "verbivocovisual" totality. In this way 
words and experience are juxtaposed in a tight phenomenological unit impossible before."
-   Ad - Arquitetura e Decoração, n. 20, November/December 1956, São Paulo, Brazil.



Concrete to Computer: The Future of Visual Poetry    By Paul Kloppenborg.  12K.
"Reading has become an active, participant-directed process rather than passive,
author-directed ... the rational-visual act of reading has become an experience of sight,
sounds, and colours."  Mirror site.   

Concrete II.   Edited by Richard Mathews.   Konglomerati Press, FL, 1976.  

From Concrete to Visual Poetry - With a Glance into the Electronic Future
By Klaus Peter Dencker.  88K.  

Concrete/Visual/Collage Bibliography.   By Susan Tichy.   34Kb.

A Concrete-Visual Poetry Weblog    By Michael P. Garofalo

Joseph Cornell - Collage Art

Correspondence Art of Ray Johnson (1927-1995)   Biography, links, bibliography, essays.

Correspondence Art: Source Book for the Network of International Postal Art Activity. 
Edited by Michael Crane and Mary Stofflet.   San Francisco: Contemporary Arts Press, 

Coudal Partners     A blog for font lovers.  

Counterspace     Typography history, design, fonts.     

Courier: An Anthology of Concrete and Visual Poetry.   Edited by D. A. Beaulieu. 
Clagary, Alberta, Canada, Housepress, 1999. 

Court's Concrete Creations     Seven concrete poems by Court Smith. 

Creating Concrete Poetry    A lesson plan for high school students by 
Rebekah Allen.   31K.  


'Crete 'oems: Web-Pointer....

'crete'oems:mpgarofalo    Concrete-Visual poems by Michael P. Garofalo. 

CVCBiblio: Concrete/Visual/Collage Bibliography.   By Susan Tichy.   34Kb.

Cyber Poetry      By Komnino Zervos.    Links



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D          ddDddDddDddD



DaDa Online

Brooke Davis: Dimensional Poetry

Deep Cleveland Junkmail Oracle    (d. a. levy)   

Digital Studies

Directorio de Poesía Visual    Links

Detritus Books   Concrete poetry titles.

The Development of ASCII Text Art     Joan Stark.   49K   

Digital Art, Poetry, Fiction

Digital Poetics: The Making of E-Poetries     Featuring Loss Pequeño Glazier.

Digital Souls

DMOZ: Arts: Literature: Poetry: Contemporary: Visual and Concrete Poetry Links   

Docs Populi   

Dr. Seuss Went to War

Doodle Dandies: Poems That Take Shape    By J. Patrick Lewis.  Graphic design by
Lisa Desimini.   Atheneum, 1998.   32 pages.  Ages 4-8

Dragonfly Dreams

Dudley Literary Arts   Harvard University

Marcel Duchamp World Community    

Rowena Dugdale

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Earthquakes and Explorations: Language and Painting from Cubism to Concrete Poetry
By Stephen Scobie.   Toronto, Univeristy of Toronto Press, 1997.

Eastgate Systems:  Hypertext
    Resources, links, software    

Edgewise Cafe

Electronic Poetry Center     An outstanding website!   Suberb galleries featuring selections
from the best concrete-visual poetry artists.   Excellent information!   A well organized and
deep website.  Organized and published on the web by the Department of Media Study, 
Poetics Program at the State University of New York, Buffalo, New York.   Links
Readers must visit this excellent website!!!

Enculturation 3.2: Visual Rhetoric

EPC / Gallery    

Eratio Post-Modern Poetry     Edited by Gregory Vincent St. Thomasino.

Eternal Network: A Mail Art Anthology.   Edited by Chuck Welch.  Calgary: University 
of Calgary Press, 1995.

EX-Poems!     Experimental, visual, and concrete poetry.

Experimental-Visual-Concrete: Avant-Garde Poetry since the 1960s.   Edited by 
Johanna Drucker, K. David Jackson, Eric Vos.  Atlanta, Georgia, Rodopi Press, 1996.     

Expressive Typography     

Exquisite Corpse Gallery

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Figuring the Word: Essays on Books, Writing, and Visual Poetics
By Johanna Drucker.   New York, Granary Books, 1998  Review

Filthy Dots
     Concrete poems by Peter Bailey.    5K.     

Fine Words

Fitzgerald-Hagen Visual Poetry    Art by Pat Hagen.  Poetry by Nancy Fitzgerald.   

Flash Guru's MX 101    A Flash blog.  

Flicker Flash       Poems by Joan Bransfield Graham.  Graphic design by Nancy Davis.
Houghton Mifflin Co., 1999.   32 pages.  For ages 4-8.  

Floating Stone    The Art and Poetry of Susumu Takiguchi.  

The Floating World of Ukiyo-E: Shadows, Dreams and Substance

Flowing: An Anthology of Concrete Poetry   Poems from Los Angeles students
on the theme of "Taming the Los Angeles River."   A blog for font lovers. 

Font Zone   An eZine for typographers.

ForEverNever  Digital Nosebleed   

Forms of Poetry for Children    Good links and references.

Forms: Concrete Poetry      By Don J. Carlson.   9K. 

404Net.Org Graffitti Links Database

Frameset for Images: Concepts and Visual Poetry Discussion  

From Concrete to Visual Poetry - With a Glance into the Electronic Future
By Klaus Peter Dencker.  88K.  



"Concrete poetry got its name at the beginning of the 1950s.  It is a language art 
form that is closed, international, and non-mimetic, proceeding from the material 
qualities of language: from the verbal, sound, and visual materiality of words. The 
graphic forms of single letters, the white space of the book page, the constellation 
of letters vis-à-vis one another, the change of reading habits, the combinatory 
possibilities of letters and words on a surface, the ignoring of syntax and metaphor, 
the free play with language material that simultaneously goes against the literalness 
of language-this calls for a wholly new reception attitude on the reader's part.  No 
customary left-right reading will work, no usual sentences, no given sequencing, 
not even words that had once been complete-the reader must himself become 
productive, discover constellations, determine double meanings of words, 
develop his own history with the language material being offered."

     -    Klaus Peter Dencker
From Concrete to Visual Poetry, With a Glance into the Electronic Future


Futurism:  Manifestos and Other Resources      By Kim Scarborough.  


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Shata Peak.   A concrete poem by Michael P. Garofalo.








Michael P. Garofalo's Concrete and Visual Poems    

The Gates of Paradise.   By David Daniel.  Links      

George Herbert's Pattern Poems - In Their Tradition.   By Dick Higgins.
West Glover, Vermont, Unpublished Editions, 1977.   

Go    From the series by Gregory Vincent St. Thomasino.  New York, Wet Motorcycle
Press, 1995.  (Wet Motorcycle Press: 72 Orange Street, Apt. 5B, Brooklyn Heights, 
NY 11201-6818.)  ISSN: 1073-7332.  



"Concrete Poetry is a certain poetry practice formulated in the 50's from Brazil and from Switzerland, 
with the following basic characteristics: .... b) "verbivocovisual" texts, which means the organization 
of a poem according to graphic criteria in order to bring out the material aspect of the word, its 
plasticity and sound - poetry to be seen and to be heard (for eye and ear); c) partial or total elimination
of ties with speech, for a direct connection between words and phrases; d) integration between verbal 
and non-verbal, word and image. Such practices concentrate and expand previous proposals that were
part of the avant-garde movements of the early twentieth century (futurism, dada, simultaneous, etc.)
reclaimed in the 50's with a constructivist rigor."
-   Regina Vater, Imediata


Google Search: Images + Concrete + Poetry     

Grammatron     By Mark Amerika

Graphic Arts - Design - Links    

Graphic Witness:  Visual Arts and Social Commentary     

Philip Guston's Poem Pictures


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H        hHhhhHhhh


HAIGA Online     Edited by Jeanne Emrich.   "HAIGA Online is a journal of painting and 
poetry inspired by the Japanese art form known as haiga.  Here you will learn 
haiga's history as well as what is haiku, the Japanese short poem which gives haiga 
its distinctive character."  

Haiku Poetry: Links, References, Resources    The word and line spacing, word length, punctuation,
and open space around text all contribute to the visual effect of a European language haiku poem. 
Few haiku poems, however, would qualify as concrete poems.    250K+
This website is a highly rated Gateway to Haiku on the Net.

Haiku Poet's Hut     By Gary Barnes (Sogi).   Haiku and art combined.  

Heart to Heart: New Poems Inspired by Twentieth Century American Art    Edited by 
Jan Greenberg.   Abrams, Harry N. Inc., 2001.   ISBN: 0810943867.

A History of Concrete Poetry    By Joe Daviess.   19K.  

A Humument - Tom Phillips    

Hyperlink Poetry   

Hyperizons: Hypertext Fiction     Well organized links.  

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Icontext    ASCII art.   

Illuminated Manuscripts of the Bible.    James  G. Pepper.   Includes good links.  

Imaged Words and Worded Images.
   By Richard Kostelanetz.   New York, Outerbridge 
and Dienstfrey, 1970.  96 pp.  Edited, with an introduction and contributions.  

Imediata: Brazilian Visual Poetry   Curated by Regina Vater.   An excellent collection of
visual poets presented at a very stylish website.    Excellent collection of texts about
concrete poetry.  

Interactive Poetry - Google Index

Interactive Works (Hypertext)     By Jim Rosenberg     

International Anthology of Concrete Poetry.    Edited by John Jessop. 
Toronto, Missing Link Press, 1978.

International Association of Word and Image Studies

International Dada Archive

In the Eye of The Beholder     A Study of Concrete Poetry And Selected Works Of
Ian Hamilton Finlay.    By Jacquelyn Arnold.   65K.    Includes bibliography.    

Is Hypertext Dead?    A list discussion.



Isidore Isou      Selections from the Manifestors of Isidore Isou.  Edited and translated
by David W. Seaman.   Excerpts from Introduction à une Nouvelle Poésie et une 
Nouvelle Musique.
  (Paris: Gallimard, 1947.)   Includes translation of the
MANIFESTO OF LETTERIST POETRY: A Commonplaces about Words, 
by Isidore Isou, 1942.



                         "The word exists and has the right to perpetuate itself. 
                          It is up to the Letterist to develop Letterism. 
                                 Letterism is offering a DIFFERENT poetry. 
                                 LETTERISM imposes a NEW POETRY. 
                                 THE LETTERIC AVALANCHE IS ANNOUNCED." 

                                                       -   Manifesto of Letterist Poetry, Isidore Isou, 1942


Italy's Newest Poetic Avant-Garde: Inismo.    David W. Seaman.   15K

"Apollinaria Signa:   Poetry is not necessarily a written page.  Poetry can also be seen or heard.  
Poetry is also scent and gesture.  A sonnet can be hypergraphic and rhyme with a drawing...
A poet can use at his whim the pen or the brush, computer or mallet, tape or film...  
Every word, even the oldest, will be heard for the first time."  David Seaman




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JDC-Concrete Poems         38K

Ronald Johnson      A critical biography by Eric Murphy Selinger.  49K+

R. K. Joshi - As a Poet - Concrete Poetry

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Eduardo Kac

     Web home for North America's longest running visual poetry magazine, founded in 1974. 
On-Line Version Edited by Karl Kempton, Harry Polkinhorn, and Karl Young.   A website with poems,
essays, links, commentary, and pointers.  The collections of poems by various noted poet-artists are
an outstanding on-line resource.  The Kaldron is Hot!
Readers must visit this excellent website!!!

Kaldron Lettriste Pages
   Edited by Karl Young and and Karl Kempton.   Alain Satié and David W. 
Seaman, Associate Curators.   Includes selected poems from and essays about the poetic creations 
of Isidore Isou, Alain Satie, Catherine James, Frédérique Devaux,  Michel Amarger, Roland Sabatier,   
Woodie Roehmer,  Gabriel Pomerand,  Virginie Caraven.  A informative collection of essays, 
criticism, catalogs, and manifestos.   The website features French poets and artists.   An example
of just one fine subsection of  Kaldron.     

Karenina.IT Experimental   A complex and full featured site.  A web project by 
Caterina Davinio that has been on-line since 1998.   Italian language website.  

kinetext:  Concrete Programming Paradigm for Kinetic Typography.    Chloe M. Chao and
John Maeda.  

R. K. Joshi - As a Poet - Concrete Poetry

Richard Kostelanetz

Kurzweil CyberArt Technologies    

Kybernekyia: Ezra Pound's Canto LXXXI         Ezra Pound



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"A superb online directory compiled by Michael P. Garofalo featuring 
all the best concrete poetry sites on the WWW."

-   Christina Conrad,  Performance Poetry Websites,  10 March 2002


1,935,600  Webpages
Served to Readers Around the World from March 2000 - December 2004
From the Poetry Notebooks of Michael P. Garofalo
(Excluding graphics served: .gif, .jpg)
Statistics 2003     Statistics 2004

Reviews and Feedback





L             LLLLlllllllllllllLLLL



Jim Leftwich     

Lettriste Pages - Kaldron

Lettrisme.  Poésie Sonore.  Poésie Graphique.  

Light and Dust Anthology of Modern Poetry    Visual poems by over 100 poets.   

Arturo Lini   Visual poetry and painting.

Links: Concrete and Visual Poetry

Links: Experimental Poetry     Open Directory (DMOZ)

Links: Visual and Concrete Poetry    Open Directory (DMOZ)

Links:  Visual Poets    Yahoo

List of Experimental Poetry/Art Magazines
    By Spencer Selby.  

Lite Show:  Flash and Other Low Bandwith Media    

Lollipop: List of Little Press Publications

Lucid Mapping and Codex Transformissions in the Z-Buffer    By John Kirschenbaum.  

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Machine Made of Words   A project of the Burning Press.

The MAGAM Gallery    

Mail Art: Fe, Mail, Art.  By Annina Van Sebroeck and Luc Fierens.  

Mail Art: A Pathfinder    Compiled by Christina Spurgin.   An excellent guide to
resources about mail art.   

Manifesto of Letterist Poetry by of Isidore Isou

Manifesto of Poly Poetry    Enzo Minarelli   

Manifesto of Roger Ferragallo

Philadelpho Menezes

Mindplay: An Anthology of British Concrete Poetry.   Edited by John Sharkey.
London, Lorimer, 1971.

Moderne HTML Art       Marc Schmitz

Modern Visual Poetry.   By Willard Bohn.   Newark, University of Delaware Press, 2001.

Most Sincerely: Ray Johnson


Moving Text    

Moving Texts   

Mukon Ohmori

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Minimalist Percussion Composition.  A concrete poem by Michael P. Garofalo.










National Collage Society    

Bob Neill is Alive and Well: A Brief History of Typewriter Art    By Andrew Belsey.  32K.

North American Center for Interdisciplinary Poetics
     Essays, poems, news, commentary.  

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Object 10     Edited by William Goldsmith.    UBU hosted papers.    Winter 2002.  

The One World Postal Art Show

On the Meaning of the Visual     Twelve theses regarding the visual and its interpretation.
By Mihai Nadin.  70K.  

Open Directory: Arts: Literature: Poetry: Contemporary: Visual and Concrete Poetry Links   

The Order of Things: An Anthology of Scottish Visual, Pattern and Concrete Poetry.   
Edited by Ken  Cockburn.  Edinburgh:  Polygon, 2001.   "Concrete Poetry has been 
called the last great episode in Modernism.  It was a worldwide movement, born in 
Switzerland and Brazil in the 1950s, which continued the dynamic experiments of 
Futurism, Dada and Constructivism in poetry."  Ken Cockburn.  

Outside the Lines: Poetry at PlayBy Brad Burg.  Illustrated by Rebecca Gibbon.  Putnam Pub 
Group Juv, 2002.  32 pages.  ISBN: 0399234462.  Concrete poetry for children, grades 4-8.  
22 poems in a delightful "rolling, swinging, skipping, bouncing book of poetry at play." 
Visit the author's website:  Brad Burg - Poems and Songs

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P             pppppppppppp



Clemente Padin    Selections from Visual Poems 1967-1970

Painted and Silscreened Poems by Kenneth Patchen      Links    

Paris in the 1920's - Poetry       

Erminia Passannanti

Pattern Poetry: A Historical Critique from the Alexandrian Greeks to Dylan Thomas
By Kenneth B. Newell.   Boston, Marlborough House, 1976.

Pattern Poetry: Guide to an Unknown Literature
.   By Dick Higgins.
New York, State University of New York Press, 1987, 1992.   "Pattern poetry (another
name for  'concrete poetry') is visual poetry in which the text and visual form interact."

Performance Poetry Links
     From Suite 101.Com.   

Performance Poetry    Google

Tom Phillips and a Humument    Gallery, essay, biography, and bibliography.

Photo Haiku Arts   By Roderick Stewart.  

Picture Poems: Some Cognitive and Aesthetic Principles
     By Reuven Tsur.  66K+   

The Pictured Word: Word & Image Interactions 2
Editors: Martin Heusser, Claus Clüver, 
Leo Hoek, Lauren Weingarden.   Published by Editions Rodopi (Amsterdam/Atlanta), 1998.

"Pilot Plan for Concrete Poetry."
  Translated by
Agusto De Campos, Decio Pignatari 
and Haroldo de Campos.  Noigandres 4 (1958). 

Poems for April      A collection of visual poems presented by the Electronic Poetry Center.

Poems on the Wall:  A Visual Poetry Exhibition

Poems that Go    Created to unite words, design, music and motion and to celebrate
poetry through technology and the Internet.   Edited by Ingrid Ankerson and Megan Sapnar.

Poesia Intersignos

Poesia Movimento (H7 25)    

Poesias Experimentais

Poetic Architecture of the Avant-Guarde    By David W. Seaman,  23K.  

Poetic License: Some Thoughts on Non-Traditional Forms.   By Lawrence Schimel.  

Poetic Solutions:  Concrete Poetry/Poesia Concreta   Comunión by
Enrique Sacerio-Garí.
Poems in Spanish and English.  

The Poetics of Language      Bruce Andrews     

"To start with:
The page, like the windowed computer screen, can encourage a looking through or a looking at approach —  
Looking through: as a transparent, dematerialized virtuality, cinema-style), 
or a looking at (as an opaque, action-oriented, control-panelled material reality)."  -  Bruce Andrews

Poetry Broadsides

Poetry - Digital  - Interactive (Links)

Poetry - New Media.   Links and notes compiled by Jim Andrews.

A Poke in the I     A collection of concrete poems.   Edited by Paul B. Janeczko. 
Graphic design by Christopher Raschka.  Candlewick Press, 2001.  48 pages.    Review.    

Pores: An Avant-Guardist Journal of Poetic Research

Pourquoi le lettrisme?

Postershop.Com     Thousands of art prints for sale.

Postmasters     "The core idea of this form of poetry can be summarized in this way: 
the visual form of the poem is an integral and essential part of its interpretation.
The form of the poem is the poem. Its content is revealed through its form."   
- Thomas Muller.

Postypographika   Fabio Doctorovich.   

P=R=O=C=A=T=A=L=O=G=U=E  Indra's Net :or: Holography.  Machine modulated poetry.


Psychological Morphology: Roberto Matta

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R  RRRrrr



Ray Rasmussen     Nature photography, artwork and haiku.     

Reading Visual Poetry after Futurism: Marinetti, Apollinaire, Schwitters, Cummings
New York, Peter Lang, 1995.  

Read-Me Festival    Media Art Festival: Software, Art, Games



              I am listening.



Riding the Meridian    Edited by Jennifer Ley.  An intriguing collection of work by 
various artists/poets, theory and criticism, interviews, archives, hypertext, 
women's studies, and special features.  

Jim Rosenberg's  Poetics
     Poetics and Other Prose   Hypertext poems and theory.  


"Concrete poetry, whether as visual poetry, sound poetry, or verbivocovisual poetry, embodied the 
striving for intermediality encountered in all of the arts, responding to and simultaneously shaping 
a contemporary sensibility that has come to thrive on the interplay of various sign systems in art 
and life, and for which the attempts at distinguishing between art and non-art are increasingly
losing their relevance."
Claus Cluver, Indiana University


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Sackner Archive of Concrete and Visual Poetry    The outstanding Ruth and Marvin Sackner Archive
of Visual and Concrete Poetry is housed at the University of Pennsylvania Library.    This is a very
large collection that is well indexed and offers full bibliographic/descriptive citations.   A variety
of search techniques can be used to access the collection.  Thumbnails and larger images of works
in the collection are provided to the reader/viewer. 
Readers must visit this excellent website!!!

Christy Sheffield Sanford    Outstanding work using a variety of web design and artistic 
techniques.    Considerable intellectual depth and artistic creativity at this fine website.   

Antoine Schmitt

Sea Monster's Theater      

A Sea Street Anthology.   By Ian Hamilton Finlay and Gloria Wilson.   Dunsyre,
Lanark, Wild Hawthorn Press, 1971.  

See Haiku Here: Digital Haiga Gallery     By Kuniharu Shimizu.

Self selected/selected self    Bill Bissett's Beyond Even Faithful Legends.   By Don Precosky.

Sequence Nu    By Nico Vassilakis.

Serendipity    By Eric Morris.

The Seven by Nine Squares       Directed by Florian Kramer.

73 Poems    By Kenneth Goldsmith and Joan La Barbara.   Permanent Press, 1994.    

Shadow Poetry

Shape Poems.    Grades K-5.   

Shape Poems     Ages 4-7    19K.  

Shape Poems - A Lesson Plan.   Grades K-5.   239K.  

Shape Poems - Environment         A lesson plan for grades K-3.       19K. 

Sierra Nevada (I am a Creature Who Belongs)     Fitzgerald-Hagen

Walter Silveira      São Paulo, Brazil.

Ellen Singletary

16 Walls   By Nico Vassilakis

Splish, Splash!    By Jane Bransfield Graham.  Graphic design by Steve Scott.   Ticknor and
Fields Books, Houghton Mifflin, 1994.  Ages 4-8. 

Joan Stark's ASCII Art Gallery    

Carol Stetser Survey

Strange and Twisted     Justin Simoni

Strings      Flash poems project by Dan Waber.     

Structure of the visual book.   By Keith Smith.   Cayuga, New York, Visual Studies Workshop Press,
Keith Smith Books, 1994.

Studies in Criticism: Text and Image.   By Michael Hancher.   32K.

The Stuff of Literature: Physical Apects of Texts and Their Relation to Literary 
.   By E. A. Levenston.  New York, N.Y. U. Press, 1992.

Surrealism and Imagination

Gunnar Swanson

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T        TTttTTttTTtt



Henry W. Targowski     Mark/Space

Tea-Leaves And Fishes.   By Hamilton I. Finlay.  Wild Hawthorn Press, 1966.

Teacher's Guide to Concrete Poems   9K.   "The term "concrete," in reference to a
poetic form, implies that there is something tangible or solid for the reader to
observe.  Concrete poetry is considered a work of graphic art because it relies upon
a visual, more than a traditional auditory, mode of presentation.  The meaning of a
concrete poem is difficult to grasp without viewing its arrangement on paper because
concrete poems are a hybrid of literary and visual art." 

Text and Image: Selective Annotated Bibliography   

Text Art (ASCII) Links    

thalia: a survey     

Thought Generator     H-Ray Heine.

3Vitre Archive of Polypoetry     Enzo Minaraelli

Title Index to Specific Concrete-Visual Poems    

Cecil Touchon Contemporary Art

29 affiches de Mai 68       


Type me, type me not      By Peter Cho.   Experiments in computational typography.

Type In Art.   By J. Reichardt.  The Penrose Annual, 1965,   Vol 58. P205-228.

Typoems    Concrete and visual poems by Anna Maria Uribe.  Poems in Spanish and English.   

Typographica   A blog about typefonts.    

Typographical Poems    Gallery at the Poetry Center in London.   PDF format.     

Typography:  Bibliography and Links.    By Emily Jane Dawson.

Typography - Graphic Arts - DMOZ Links     


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"Visual forms- lines, colours, proportions, etc., are just as capable
of articulation,  i.e. of complex combination, as words.  But the laws
that govern this sort of articulation are altogether different from the
laws of syntax that govern language.   The most radical difference
is that visual forms are not discursive.  They do not present their
constituents successively, but simultaneously, so that relations
determining a visual structure are grasped in one act of vision."
-   Suzanne Langer, Philosophy in a New Key, 1942










UBUWeb: Visual, Concrete and Sound Poetry     An extensive collection of recorded poems (.MP3),
art and poetry creations, concrete poems, and quality essays about these topics.    Includes both
contemporary and historical sections.   A must visit website!!!

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Valentine Files      

vector!geograph (vt)   By jUStin!katKO.

Visible Language
    Scholarly journal published since 1967.  

ViSual POetry* EXhibition   Dudley Literary Arts, Harvard University

The Visible Word: Experimental Typography and Modern Art, 1909-1923     By Johanna Drucker. 
Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 1994.   Review 

VISPO: Langu (im) age      Experimental visual poetry and essays on new media.   By
Jim Andrews. 

Visual-Concrete Poems by Michael P. Garofalo    100K+   

Visual Literature Criticism.     By Richard Kostelanetz.   Carbondale: Southern 
Illinois University Press, 1980.   192 pp.  Edited, with a preface and a contribution.

Visual Poems, 1967-1970      By Clemente Padin

Visual Poems and New Media     By Derek White

Visual Poetry     International poetry festival at Medellin.   

Visual Poetry Anthology.   Edited by G. J. De Rook.    Utrecht, Bert Bakker Den Haag, 1975. 
A collection of 133 poets from 25 countries.

Visual Poetry by Ruth Cowen

Visual Poetry in Latin America    By Harry Polinkhorn.   7K.  

The Visual Poetry of BPNichol   By Karl Young

Visual Spots: Concrete-Visual Poetry Exhibit.   By Michael P. Garofalo.

Volume One   

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Wacky Packages Web Page - Kevin Porter     

Ted Warnell

Watermusic: Interactive Journal of Hyper-Poetry

Web Del Sol
   Outstanding poetry website.  

WebGraphics   A collaborative blog.  

Web Hypertexts: Hypertext Kitchen   Web Hypertext, Net Art, Web Art.   

Web Log    A Concrete-Visual Poetry Weblog by Michael P. Garofalo

Webpage Graphics - Yahoo Links

Webworks Gallery - Haiku and Paintings   

Wenzi Concrete - Chinese Characters and Art

What are "Not Poems?"     Adele Aldridge.    

Why Not?  An Anthology of Visual Ilk      Simon Geraghty

Jon Whyte: A Guide for Reading Concrete Poetry

Jon Whyte: Keeper of Place   

Wis Arts: Painting, Poetry, Digital Artworks      By Wieslaw Sadurski.

With Love, Zolo        Haiga by John J. Polozzolo      

Word & Image:  International Association of Word and Image Studies

Word and Image    Third International Conference on Word and Image.  Carleton
University, Ottawa, 1993.  

Word Circuits      Edited by Robert Kendall.  

Lee Worden

The WORD Project

Workshop with Hungarian Visual Poets


'Crete 'oems: Web-Pointer....

Workshop of the Scripturality    The artwork of Joëlle Dautricourt on writing, Hebrew 
and Latin letters.  In French and English.  

Wordworks: Poems Selected and New     American Poets Continuum, Vol.  27.    By
Richard Kostelanetz.    Boa Editions, 1993.   206 pages.

Wr-eye-tings Scratchpad    A large collection of the work of visual poets based on a 
mail-list group.

Writing and Poetry (Art/Technology)  Links   

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Color of Three.   A concrete poem by Michael P. Garofalo.







X-Refer - Concrete Poetry








Karl Young Home Page    Visual poetry, mail art, book art, bibliography, criticsim and essays.  

"During the sixties, concrete poetry had a tendency to be pictorial, trivially self-referential, and static. Works like the 
tiny masterpieces of Emmett Williams tended to get lost in the juggernaut of poems made up of the word "pine" typed 
over and over in the shape of a Christmas tree. The tendency of visual poetry now, however, is away from pictorial 
and mimetic representations in favor of gesture, motor stimulus, gestalt, and abstract archetype. Visual poetry, whether 
complex or minimalist, has become deeper, more capable of reaching more levels of thought, perception, and action, 
and, at the same time, more oriented toward performance, public or private. This can lead to multimedia performance, 
incorporating other arts, sometimes interacting with work produced by a number of people in a cooperative or 
collective effort."
                                            -  Karl Young,    Notation and the Art of Reading 








Zeldman Presents: Exit Gallery

Zybooks Artists Books on Line

Zuzu Petals Literary Resources - Links

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Webpages that Link to This Website.   
Thank You!


CVC (Concrete, Visual, Collage) Bibliography by Susan Tichy, 2005

Bibliography:  Is it a Book? 2005     

Big Bang Faerie, 2003  

Future for Word Exhibition, Concrete/Visual Poetry,  Seattle Poetry Festival, 2002

Eratio Post-Modern Poetry 2003 

English Web Teacher - General Poetry Resources, 2005

The 3rd Page

Laurable Poetry Weblog

Oneedit Link

Links to Online Poetry Anthologies








More Concrete/Visual Poems by Michael P. Garofalo






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ASCII Art Gallery by Joan Stark






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Short Poems and Haiku: Links, Guides, References, Poems


Zen Poetry: Links, Guides, References, Studies, Poems




Quotes for Gardeners

Quotes, Sayings, Proverbs, Poetry, Maxims, Quips, Cliches, Adages, Wisdom
A Collection Growing to Over 2,700 Quotes, Arranged by 135 Topics
Many of the Documents Include Recommended Readings and Internet Links.
Compiled by Michael P. Garofalo





Search the Concrete Poetry Website









©  Distributed on the Internet since January 1, 2001.


Copyrighted © 2005 by Green Way Research.    All rights reserved.

I Welcome Your Comments, Ideas, Contributions, and Suggestions
E-mail Mike Garofalo in Red Bluff, California

Poetry Notebook II of Michael P. Garofalo
Concrete Poems:  125Kb,  18 February 2005, Version 1.5


I used Microsoft Front Page 2000 to create this webpage.  
The concrete poems on this webpage were created with Macromedia Fireworks 4.

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The Spirit of Gardening

Haiku and Zen Poetry

Concrete Poems by Michael P. Garofalo

Concrete-Visual Poetry:  Links, Bibliography and Some Poems

Cloud Hands: Tai Chi Chuan and Qigong




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